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Dr G P Patankar

 

 

UNIVERSITY GRANT COMMISSION

SPONSORED

MINOR RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT

September -2016

Ref.MRP(H)/13-14/KAKA 105/UGC-SWRO Dt:15/Feb/2014

ON THE TOPIC

DEPLETION OF WATER POTENTIAL IN THE

WESTERN GHAT REGION

OF UTTARA KANNADA DISTRICT

ITS CAUSES AND EFFECTS

By

Dr. G.P.PATANKAR

M.Sc, M.A, Ph.D.

Associate Professor in Geography

S.D.M. Degree College Honavar (U.K.)

Karnataka State ,India.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECLARATION

 

I herebydeclarethat, this Minor Research Project is sanctioned by U.G.C(Ref.MRP(H)/13-14/KAKA105/UGC-SWRO Dt:15/Feb/2014).

Entitled:

‘DEPLETION OF WATER POTENTIAL IN THE WESTERN GHAT REGION

OF UTTARA KANNADA DISTRICT: IT’S CAUSES AND EFFECTS,’

is completed and submitted to U.G.C. is my original work. I have not submitted part of it or fully for any other Research Organization previously.

 

 

Dr. G. P.PATANKAR

M.Sc, M.A, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, in Geography

S.D.M.Degree College, Honavar (U.K.)

 

Place :Honavar (U.K.)

Date  :21/09/2016

 

 

 

 

CONTENT

 

SI. No.

List

Page No.

1.

List of local terms

I

2.

List of Chapters

II

3.

List of Figures

II

4.

List of Tables

III

5.

List of Photos

IV

6.

Acknowledgment

V

7.

    Preface

1

8.

Objectives, Database and Methodology

2 declare

 

 

List of Local Terms

 

Sl.

No.

Local

term

Meaning of Local Term.

1.

Halla Stream or brook

2.

Nala Small stream

3.

Malnad A region with rugged terrain with copious rainfall

4.

Maidan A plain to rolling relief

5.

Semi-malnad A region having rolling and moderate rainfall

6.

Kharif Rainy cropping season(crop cultivated during rainy season)

7.

Rabi Winter crop season(crop cultivated during Nov. to April)

8.

Taluk An  administrative sub-unit of a district

9.

Jungle Forest

 

I

 

CHAPTERS

SI. No.

 

Chapter

 

Page No.

1.

Water Potential of the Earth

03

2.

Study Area  :Uttara Kannada District

09

3.

Water Potentialof Uttara-Kannada District

21

4.

Utilization of Water Potential

32

5.

Causes for forest Degradation

40

6.

Degradation of Forest and Its Impact on water

resources

60

7.

Findings and Suggestions

86

 

Bibliography

92

List of Figures

Sl. No.

Fig. No.

             Figure              .

Page

No.

1.

1.

Global Fresh Water Availability and Use

05

2.

2.

Global Fresh Water Availability and Uses

06

3.

3.

Per capita water availability in India

08

4.

4.

Location of Uttara Kannada District: In India and Karnataka

10

5.

5.

Slope gradient  and area of Uttara Kannada District

14

6.

6.

Slope gradient  Graph of Uttara Kannada District

14

7.

7.

Total  water potential of Uttara Kannada District

23

8.

8.

River  Potential of the District

26

9.

9.

Drainage pattern of  Uttara Kannada District

27

10.

10.

Land use in Uttara Kannada District 2011-12

34

11.

11.

Hydrology of Uttara Kannada District

74

12.

12.

Depth to water level Pre-monsoon  (May)

75

13.

13.

Depth to water level Post-monsoon  ( November)

76

14.

14.

Status of ground water utilization

82

 

II

 

List of Tables

Table

No.

Title of  the table

Page

No.

1

Percapita Water availability in India

08

2

Study Area :Physical  Background

11

3

Administrative  Set-up – 2011 Census

12

4

Cultural Background

13

5

Slope Gradient and Area

13

6

Types of Landform

13

7

Number of  rainy days and Annual Rainfall (1941-1991)

17

8

Average Annual Rainfall in volume (1941 – 1991)

22

9

Runoff co-efficient

24

10

Drainage area and average annual flow of west flowing rivers

25

11

Hydro-electric power potential

28

12

Number of Tanks and water potential

29

13

Ground water availability -2011

31

14

Land utilization- 2012(Area in hectare)

35

15

Kharif crop land utilization – 2012

37

16

Rabi crop land utilization 2012

38

17

Decadal variation in crop land use(2002to  2012)

39

18

Causes of forest loss/degradation(area in ha.)

42

19

Total length of wooden fence constructed during CroppingSeasons 2014-15 (length in k.m.)

48

20

Forest area encroached up to 2000-01

49

21

Taluk wise Distributionof  Eupatorium Odoratum

55

22

Per Day Domestic Water Demand 2011

57

23

Taluk-wise Domestic Consumption of Water

58

24

Variation in Ground Water Potential2004 – 2011 (in ham.)

72

25

Net irrigated area from different source2010-11(area in ha.)

77

26

Assessment of existing dynamic ground water resource 2010-2011 (ham.)

78

27

Irrigated Land (Area in hect.) Under Different Sources

79

28

Utilization and Development of Water Potential(2010-11)

80

29

Ground Water Resources 2004

81

30

Utilization and Development of Water Potential

83

31

Ground Water Development 2004-2029

85

 

III

 

 

List of photos

 

Sl.No.

                           Photos                          

 

Page No.

1.

Photo No.  — 01

44

2.

Photo No.  — 02

44

3.

Photo No.  — 03

45

4.

Photo No.  — 04

45

5.

Photo No.  — 05

46

6.

Photo No.  –06

47

7.

Photo No.  – 07

50

8.

Photo No.  – 08

50

9.

Photo No.  — 09

52

10.

Photo No.  –10

52

11.

Photo No.  – 11

54

12.

Photo No.  – 12

61

13.

Photo No.  – 13

62

14.

Photo No.  – 14

63

15.

Photo No.  – 15

63

16.

Photo No.  – 16

64

17.

Photo No.  – 17

64

18.

Photo No.  – 18

65

19.

Photo No.  – 19

68

20

Photo No.  – 20

69

21

Photo No.  – 21

69

 

 

 

 

IV

 

 

 

Acknowledgment

More first, I must extend my thanks to University Grant Commission for granting me this minor research project and giving me the special concession to complete this project.

I must be thankful to the president of my institution for his encouragement in doing this research project.

I am greatly indebted to my beloved and revered teachers and researcher advisers Retired prof. Dr. S.S.Naregal, Department  of Geography K.U.Dharwad  and Prof. Dr. A.S. Rayamane, Department of Geography, Bangalore University for their able and scholarly guidance and constant encouragement at all  the stages which helped me in carrying out this minor research project.

 I am also thankful to the Principal ShriV.S.Bhat, for his timely help and encouragement and extending special concession in my routine work to carry out this minor research work.  I am also thankful to the authorities of Karnataka State Remote Sensing Technology Utilization center, Bangalore for providing me data and information about the district.

 I am also thankful to Shri Akbar Shaikh, Conservator of Forest, Chickamagalur district for his valuable suggestion and guidelines about forest growth and conservation.

 I am also thankful to Dr. SatishHegde , Assistant Director of Horticulture , Sirsi  for his suggestion and guidance to this research work.

  I am also thankful to the State Ground WaterDepartment, Bangalore, for giving me required data and information on ground water behavior of Uttara Kannada. 

I am also thankful to Hydro Geologist ShriS.S.Hegde, State Ground Water Department Bangalore, for giving me needy suggestion, data and information about ground Water behavior of Uttara Kannada.  

 I am proud of my wife Shalini, who has infact, persuaded me to undertake this research work. She has taken up all the responsibility of my domestic front in addition to her executive duty in the judicial department.

I am also thankful to my beloved colleagues and friends Shri. S.N. Hegde, Shri M.G.Hegde and ShriShridhar B.Mesta of my college for their timely help in completing this Minor Research Project.

I am also thankful to ShriVenkateshPatgar for extending timely support in computer work. I am also thankful to Photographer ShriNagarajMahale in getting field photos of the district.

v

 

Preface

 

Water is a basic resource required to support all forms of life on the earth surface.  The serious and growing concern of the present world is management of quality and quantity of water and its proper utilization, which is dynamic with time and space today.  Its mismanagement affects our health, life style and economic well-being of the people. In the historical period the perennial source of water inspired civilization and several civilizations came to extinction due to shortage of water.  With the increase in the world population, the water consumption also increases. The development in science and technology provided increasing wants of life which has direct effect on quality and quantity of water.  The expansion in industries and agriculture has increased the demand for water many fold.   As a result, source of water is declining.  Use of increased pollutants such as herbicides, Pesticides, fertilizers and hazardous chemicals can make their way into our water supply. As a result pure natural water rarely exists today.

Today the world is heading towards a water crisis.  No doubt if at all the third world war takes place, definitely it may be on the issue of water dispute. The global use of water has quadrupled in the recent years.  Africa and west Asia are likely to be worst affected by water scarcity.   According to a report of UNO some 80 nations including India, about 40 per cent of world’s population, are already in the throes of a water stress and they do not have sufficient water for adequate living hygienic. More than 20 per cent of the world’s population does not have access to safe drinking water. More than 2.2 million people die each year of diseases related to drinking of contaminated water. It is projected that by 2050 water scarcity will affect 2 to 7 billion people out of total 9.3 billion.  Its mismanagement affected health, life style and economic wellbeing of the people. Hence determining, monitoring and maintenance of water standard become mandatory for sustainable development of water resources.

 

 

 

  

Objectives

The main objectives of the Minor Research Project are:

  • To make an in-depth study of water potential of the district.
  • To find out the present utilization of water resources for different purposes.
  • To find out the causes of depletion of water potential of the district.
  • To find out suitable remedial measures to tackle theproblems
  • To conserve water potential for optimum utilization.

 

Data Base

Most of the data is generated by the researcher from field investigation. In addition to this the required data is gathered from various secondary sources. The data pertaining to physical background of the district was collected from districtstatistical office Karwar. The data pertain to forest is obtained from the office of conservator of forest. The data pertains to water potential is had from the department of ground water Geology. The non-availability of latest and sufficient data has caused major set-back in many research approaches. Discussions were held with local people, seniors of the district and department experts. The sources like atlas, remote sensing maps, photographs etc., are also used to find out reality of the causes of depletion of water potential of the district.

 

Methodology

 

The causes for depletion of water potential are analyzed by using rainfall data. Forest loss and its degradation are identified by using satellite imagery of different period. Official data is used in identifying the permanent loss of forest. Attention is given to identify the increased agricultural, horticultural and other socio-economic activities.

Most of the results and analysis are based on simple arithmetic methods. Suitable research techniques are used in identifying some of the critical problems.

 

 

 

Chapter — I

 

                       Water Potential of the Earth                 

 

Out of the earth’s total water supply 97.20 percent is salt water.  Therefore only 2.80 percent is fresh water.  Out of it 82.10 per cent is in the form of ice and glacier.  The source of ground water is estimated to be 14.30 percent. About 1.20 percent of water is suspended in air and aquifers. Therefore only 2.40 percent water is distributed in lakes and rivers as a source of surface water.  Out of the total water evaporating from ocean 90 per cent is returning to it and remaining 10 percent available for natural and human ecosystem every year.

The total estimated world water resource is 43,750 Km3/year.  At the continental level, America has the largest share of the world’s total fresh water resources with 45 percent followed by Asia with 28 percent, Europe with 15.50 per cent and Africa with 9 percent and the remaining 2.5 per cent is distributed in other continents, but the availability of water resource for human utilization varies among continents. America has 24,000m3/year, Europe 9,300 m3/year, Africa 5000m3/year and Asia 3,400.10m3/year which together contributes highest share of water resources of the world.  

Distribution of Earth’s Water

 

     Water is the elixir of life, a precious gift of nature to mankind and millions of other species. The total water resources available in the world are given below:

Total Water Potential of the Earth —  1,250 million Cubic km

 

 Saline Water   —  1245.54  million cubic km(97.20per cent)

 

Fresh water4.46   million cubic km   (2.80 per cent)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Distribution of Saline Water  (percent)

 

Pacific  ocean

52.15

Atlantic ocean

25.58

Indian ocean

21.05

Arctic  ocean

1.22

 

Freshwater  –4.46 million cubic km (2.80 percent)

 

 

Distribution of Fresh Water(percent)

 

Ice and glacier

82.10

Ground water

14.30

Lakes and rivers

2.40

Air and soil         1.20


At the country level, water availability extremely varies.  Only 10 m3/ year is available to Kuwait.  On the contrary, Canada possesses 1,00,000 m3/year.  The countries like Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Malta, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen possess poorest water resources per inhabitant.  Even in the large countries, the water resources are also distributed unevenly in relation to population and seasons. The country like India, where the places likeMawsynram (1,221 cm), Cheerapunji (1,102 cm) and Agumbe (827 cm) receives world’s highest annual mean rainfall in an order. On the contrary the TharDesert receives very scanty rainfall. The distribution of rainfall alsovaries. The country receives highest of 75 percent rainfall from June to September. The remaining eight month receives only 25 per cent of rainfall which is also confined to specific region and time.

 

 

 

Fig. No.  –1

Global Fresh Water Availability and Uses

 

About 60 per cent of world’s natural fresh water is in 9 countries.  More than thirty nine countries depend on other countries for over 50 per cent of their renewable water resources. viz. Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Cambodia, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Gambia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Latvia, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands,  Niger, Pakistan, Paraguay, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Saurian, Arab Republic, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Yugoslavia..

 

Fig. No.– 2

Global Fresh Water Availability and Uses

 

How Much Water Does an Urban Citizen Need in the World?

Average Urban water demand per day

593,644,108,500 liters

 

Average urban Utilization of water per day per personin liters

Bathing

55

Toilet flushing

30

Washing cloth

20

Washing utensils

10

Cooking

05

Drinking

05

 

The future of the world water resource is very much dependent on the climatic situation and increased human economic activities. Therefore human activities on the surface of the earth must be in a rational way for the conservation of water resources.

 

 

Water Potential In India

India is the second populous country with 16 per cent of world population. But it possesses only 4 per cent of fresh water of the world. It receives an average annual rainfall of 110 cm. But it is unequally distributed. The total generation of water potential of India is estimated to be 2.75 million Km3.Out of it soil soaks about 0.6 million km3 Per capita availability offresh water in India has dropped from 5,117 cubic meters in 1951 to 1820meters in 2001 and it is declining at a faster rate in future. In many rural areas women still have to walk an average distance of about 2.5 km to reach the nearest source of water. On an average, a rural woman walks more than 1,400 km a year just to fetch water.

In India, many states like Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are in the grip of a serious water shortage. Dispute over Sharing of water from Yamuna river between Haryana and Delhi, sharing ofCauvery water between Karnataka and Tamilnadu are growing conflicts. Even at grass root level, sharing of water from streams and tributaries, tanks, wells, and canals are creating disputes among the farmers. The increasing problems of domestic water supply are other watercrisis among public and is an unsolved misery in India till today.

1.1.3. Waterpotential in Karnataka

The Karnataka state receives 73 percent of its water from south–west monsoon. About 16 percent of its water is received during north–east monsoon. During summer the state is blessed with 10 percent of rainfall. The state possesses drainage area of 24,764 km2. Hence with these sources the state possesses 1,695 TMC of surface water for utilization which is stored in 80 reservoirs in Karnataka. It is capable of irrigating 12, 91,110 ha. land. There are 33,217 minor irrigation schemes (77 percent of irrigated area) in Karnataka which irrigate about 2,34,276 ha of land. The groundwater potential

of the state is estimated to be 1,52,9659 ha. meters (540.19 TMC) of which974731 ha meters (344.22 TMC) irrigates to the extent of 51 percent of its total irrigated land

 

 

About 34.10 TMC of ground water is utilized for domestic and industrial purpose. As such the state possesses a balance of 161.86 TMC of ground water yet to be utilized. It is crucial to note that in Karnataka 91 percent of groundwater is used for irrigation and a meager 9 percent is used for domestic and industrial purpose.

Table No. – 1

Percapita Water availability in India

 

Sl.No.

Year

Population

(Million)

Water Availability

(cu.m./pp/year

1.

1951

361

5,177

2.

1991

846

2,209

3.

2001

1,027

1,820

4.

2025 (projected)

1,394

1,341

5.

2050 (Projected)

1,640

1,140

 

Fig No.3

Percapita  water availability in India

.

Chapter – II

Study Area :Uttara Kannada District

 

Uttara Kannada district, “A Land of Natural Museum” is one of the 30 districts in Karnataka State. Because of its scenic beauty, this district can be referred to as “Karnataka state within the ambit of 13055 north to 1503 northparallels and 740 9 to 750 10’ east meridians.

It is a unique district, a biotic gallery and a topographical wonder. With the Western Ghatranges endowed with a feast of all varieties of fauna and plateau flora, the Deccan plateau, plains, the coastal strips and the sea shore with its long silvery white beaches and marine resources and the mineral wealth, the huge burnished rock face, fertile green paddy fields, cool palm groves, rich lush green hilly tracts with beautiful tree top and the winding valleys endowed with the most captivating landscape.  Its waterfalls have attracted men from far and near, have made the district

rich in scenic beauty. Though the coast is unbroken by deep and wide mouthed estuaries, it is varied and picturesque, with rocky islands, capes, caves, sand bars, spit, stack and other varied coastal features and miniatures of undulations and depressions are seen attractively.  Number of small lakes and the coastal estuarine plain settlements which are linked by country boats give rise to the view of Kashmir.

     The natural processes like denudation and decomposition are more actively developed features in the district. The district has many well developed carst topographical places. Carst features of Yana in Kumtataluk is the most spectacular wonder of natural artistic design anywhere in India. The carst feature at Ulvi, and Sidha cave and the projected “Syntheri Rock” structure near Joida is one of the most attractive tourist spots in IndiaKashmir of Karnataka.” Geographically it is located in the north-western part of Karnataka state.

Administrative Set-up

For administrative purpose the district has been divided into eleven taluks with its headquarter at Karwar. Five of its taluks are in the coastal region and four are in the Malnad (Western Ghat proper). Semi-Malnad is the transitional zone possesses two

 

 

taluks. There are 11 towns and 1,246 inhabited villages and 43 uninhabited villages in the district.The district has three sub-divisions. Karwar sub division has the taluks of Karwar,Haliyal and Joida(total area 3342.50 sq.km.). The Sirsi sub-division

Fig .  No.  4

 

Location of Uttara Kannada District :In India and Karnataka

 

 

 

 

has the taluks of Sirsi, Siddapur, Mundgod and Yellapur (total area 4087.80 sq.km.). Kumta sub-division has the talukKumta ,Honavar, Bhatkal and Ankolataluks (total area 2,828.50 sq.km.). There are 35revenue circlesin the district. Ankola, Haliyal,Karwar,Kumta and Sirsi have four and Honavar ,Siddapur, Joida have three and Bhatkal, Mundgod,Yellapur have two sub-administrative units.

 

Physiographic Background

Topography

 

The district is heterogeneous in its relief. From west to east the relief shows much difference in its altitude structure and origin of the relief. The rugged topography with diverse nature of relief can be divided into three major physiographical units.

  1. I.                  The Coastal Region

It consists of distinct two sub-regions,viz.,

i.            The coastal region proper, an elongated coastal plain

ii.            The relatively wide foothill undulated to gentle patches of plain

The elongated narrow coastal plain proper is a low lying plain adjacent to the sea coast which is nowhere more than 4 km wide. Whereas the narrow valleys plains of short stretched rivers flowing into the Arabian Sea is extend

Table No.   2

 

Study Area: Physical Background

1

Geographical area 10,258.80 sq.km

2

Average rainfall 245.52 cm

3

Climate Tropical monsoon

4

Forest type Evergreen and Semi-evergreen

5

Soil type Laterite, alluvial, red loam, red  sandy saline and black

 

up to the foot hills of the Western Ghat. It has fertile alluvial soil and these elongated narrow valleys culminate in the development of elongated plain of sand and alluvium. The foot hill forms a distinct track of narrow valleys, which possess elongated and isolated patches of small valley plains. These residual hills and narrow valleys extending up to the scarp line of the Western Ghat.

The coastal sub-region of Uttara Kannada is dominated by a number of estuaries, which comprises part of the ‘Konkan coast’ It is a succession of estuarine plains connected with narrow coastal strips, lying between scarp line of the Western Ghats and Arabian sea. It begins from Majali village ofKarwartalukuptoDakshina Kannada boundary, a little beyond the port of Bhatkal, till  Gorte village of Bhatkaltaluk  for about 144 km. km and its width ranges between 16-32 km depending on the nature of the estuaries and intermediate table land. Most of it forms the foot hill areas of the Western Ghat with narrow valleys of relatively flat alluvial patches at the confluence of the tributary stream with main River.

Table No. 3

Uttara Kannada District :Administrative Set-up – 2011 Census

 

 

Administrative

sub-divisions

 

Taluk

Area

in

sq.km.

Population

in  2011

No.of towns

No. of

inhabited

villages

No.of

unihabited

villages

Decadal

Growth of population

I. Karwar

Karwar

732.10

(7.14)

155143

(10.80)

01

51

01

4.90

Haliyal

847.40

(8.26)

170976

(11.90)

02

111

18

7.44

Joida

(Supa)

1926.30

(18.78)

52013

(3.62)

00

114

06

6.34

 

 

II.Kumta

 

Kumta

582

(5.67)

154515

(10.75)

01

111

07

5.96

Honavar

754.80

(7.36)

166390

(11.58)

01

92

01

3.78

Bhatkal

348.90

(3.40)

161577

(11.24)

01

60

00

8.20

Ankola

918.70

(8.96)

107428

(7.48)

01

80

01

5.79

 

 

III.Sirsi

Sirsi

1320.10

(12.87)

187014

(13.02)

01

221

01

6.53

Siddapur

859.30

(8.38)

97435

(6.78)

01

195

01

3.41

Mundgod

668.10

(6.51)

106265

(7.39)

01

84

07

17.11

Yellapur

1301.10

(12.68)

78091

(5.44)

01

127

00

6.25

District total

 

11

10,258.80

(100)

14,36,847

(100)

11

1,246

43

6.15

Table No. 4

Uttara kannadaDistrict:Cultural Background

 

1. Population 14,37,169    (2011 census)
2. No. of taluks 11
3. No. of rural settlements 1,275
4. No. of urban settlements 11  –  small towns
5. Main occupation

 

Agriculture, horticulture

and fishing

 

Table No. 5

Uttara Kannada District : Slope Gradient and area

 

Sl. No.

Degree

Area in sq. ha.

Area in

percentage

1.

Less than 50

2,40,978

23.49

2.

60  to  100

1,71,014

16.67

3.

110  to  200

2,14,321

20.89

4.

210  to  400

1,40,750

13.72

5.

Above  400

2,58,817

25.23

Total

10,25,880

100.00

Table No. 6

Uttara Kannada District :Types of Landform

Sl. No.

Types of   landform

Area in sq. ha. (percent)

1.

Coastal and estuarine plain

78,116(07.61)

2.

Rugged terrain(dissected hills)

6,43,650   (62.73)

3.

Piedmont plains

97,130   (09.48)

4.

Hill,hillocks and rolling relief

2,06984   (20.18)

 

Total

10,25,880   (100)

 

 

 

Fig. No.   —   5

 

Fig.  No. – 6

 

II.   The Malnad Region (Western ghat)

The core of the Western Ghat is the central part of the district. Because of its extensively humid forest condition this part of the district is called as Malnad. It is stretching north-south in the central part of the district. Its width varies from 30 km to 45 km. On account of different head ward erosion by the major rivers and their tributaries. From the edge of the Western Ghat up to about 16 km east the Malnad presents a picture of rugged terrain rising higher eastward and the topography gradually flattens. The Malnad covers an area of 7,898 sq.km. (77 per cent) of total area of the district approximately (which also includes foot hills parts of the coastal region).

The Sahyadrian interior tract includes Supa, Yellapur and Sirsi and Siddapurtaluks. This Ghat regions runs in a north-south direction from Chandgad (Maharastra) border in the north to the border of the Siddapurtaluk in the south(Uttara Kannada) about 110km long in the district’ Thecentral portion of the Sahyadri  is a rolling topography and broad valley features. The eastern margin is a transition zone between the main Sahyadrian landscape and the drier plateau of the upghat (Malnad) regions.

III.   Semi-malnad region:

This is a transitional tract between the Malnad and the Maidan. To the east of the Malnad is the semi-Malnad of undulating plateau, where the rainfall is moderate. The eastern belt consisting of a narrow transitional zone of undulating lands and vast stretches of plains as one moves further eastwards. It tends to be an open country, occasionally interrupted by residual hills. The vegetation itself reflects the transition from the deciduous and evergreen forest types to stunted bushes and scrubs. It resembles parkland scenery and land-use is typical of the eastern parts of Haliyala and Mundgodtaluks. Thus the eastern margin is a transitional zone between the forest proper and the cultivated upland of Dharwad district. Thus the landscape is characterized by proportionately increased dry conditions with increase in distance from the sea.

 

As such the physical condition of the district plays a dominant role in the hindrance of socio-economic development of the district. There is little scope for the extension of land to cropping land. The rugged terrain restricts agricultural land to patches in the Malnad and the coastal stretch is arrested by the Western Ghat at its eastern margin and the Arabian sea in the western edge.

Climate                         

The climate of the district is of “Tropical Monsoon” type, which is characterized by seasonal rhythm. It plays a vital role for the conservation and utilization of water potential of the district. Its location, nearness to Arabian Sea, topography, s-w monsoon wind and thick vegetation covers are the controlling factors of climate in the district. As a result the climate varies from west to east. The dense forest, water bodies and local relief of the district also affect micro-climate of the district. The district is clearlydivisible into three well marked seasons, the hot weather season fromMarch to May, the rainy season starts generally from second week of June and ends in the last week of November (especially in the upper Ghat) and cold weather season starts from the end of November to February.The district receives an average of  257.10c.m. rainfall. It varies from 417.30 c.m.in Bhatkaltaluk to 115.5 c.m. in Mundgodtaluk. July is the month of heaviest rainfall. As an average the district receives rain in 103 days. It variesfrom 144 days in Bhatkal to 87 days in Mundgod. Generally the wettest areas are Sahyadries (Western Ghat) and the coastal belt. The Western Ghat which lies across the path of the s-w monsoon causes heavyrainfall of over 3,64.40 cm in thecoastal (58.40 per cent) region and 269.5 cm(34.10 per cent) in the Malnad region. The semi-Malnad region receives moderate rainfall of 137.20 cm7.50 percent)

Soil type

The wide varieties of plant growth and wide range of crops is an indication of rich and varied quality of soil in the district. Laterite soil is the major soil of the district. The western margin is characterized by coastal alluvial soil. In addition to laterite soil,

 

red loam, red sandy loam, sandy saline and black soils are the other types of soil in the district.

Table No. —7

 

Uttara Kannada District:  Number of rainydays and Annual Rainfall (1941-1991)

Sl. No.

Sub-regions

and taluk

Number of

Rainy days

Actual Rainfall

( in cm)

I.

Coastal  region

110

364.40

1.

Karwar

105

322.80

2.

Ankola

107

354.30

3.

Kumta

112

360.20

4.

Honnavar

112

367.80

5.

Bhatkal

116

417.30

II.

Malnad region

100

269.50

6.

Sirsi

100

239.80

7.

Siddapur

101

277.20

8.

Yellapur

99

250.00

9.

Joida

103

311.30

III.

Semi-Malnad

87

137.20

10.

Haliyal

85

134.50

11.

Mundgod

89

140.00

District total

103

257.10

 

The chemical analysis of the soil shows that nearly 68 per cent of the soil in the district is neutral, but remaining 28 per cent is acidic and only 4 per cent is alkaline in character. The soluble salt content is high in about 13 per cent of the soil, which is chiefly confined to coastal areas. In the inland hill areas organic matter content is high in nearly 86 per cent of the cases due to the decay of vegetable matters. But it is deficient in only about 6 percentof the soil. The phosphorous content in the soil is medium in Honavar, Mundgod, Siddapur and Supataluks. But it is lowest in all other taluks of the district.

 

Geology

The rock formation of the district belong to a most ancient period of earth’s history which consist of “Archean complex” the oldest rock of the earth crust. The principal component rocks are ofthe eastern part of the district is Dharwad and thepeninsular gneiss, Pegmatite and quartzite veins also are known to occur in parts of the district. The central and southern part of the district consists of Archean granites and gneiss is capped by laterite at several places. Along the coast from Bhatkal to Karwar, the rocky cliff and islands are made up of pre-Cambrian crystalline  gneiss and schist, which are capped by the laterite and unconsolidated recent alluvial materials which form an inter-land between the Ghat and the sea coast consisting of large number of recent mollusk and micro faunal shells.

Mineral Resources

The Geological formations are the source of huge and good quality mineral deposits, which ranks second in the state next to Bellary district. Iron ore, manganese ore are the major items, while limestone, quartzite,bauxite, silicon,lime shell and clay are of minor importance. Accessary minerals include copper,asbestos, mica, rock granite and building stones are found in abundance.

Uttara Kannada is one of the forest districts of Karnataka states, where priority is given for the conservation of forest. But unscientific methods of mining and inadequate means of transport are the reason for the untapped remains of many types of minerals.

Cultural Setting

The population profile shows that there is low density and growth trend in the district since last century. From a base of 4, 54,490 person in 1901 the total population of the district in 2011 census increased to 14, 37,169 persons. With the increased accessibility, opening up of the area and declining incidence of diseases and mortality shows the growth rate of population trend.

 

 

The population density is the lowest in the state. Only 140 persons reside in a sq.km.ofareawhich is in contrast to the state average of 319people per sq.km. Their

inter- regional variations in population brings out distinct characteristics of population. The coastal region has the highest population density of 225 people per sq.km. The rugged terrain region of the district shows 76 people per sq.km. The semi-Malnad region possesses183 person per sq.km.

Pattern of literacy

Though the population of the district is low the literacy rate is far better than the state’s average of 75.60 per cent and it ranks fifth in the state in the year 2011. The district has highest literacy rate of 84.03 per cent. The high level of literacy is observed in respect of male (91.83) while female literacy is 81.22 per cent. The availability of limited natural resources for the maintenance of life made the people to send their children for education and job and it is the main reason for higher level of literacy in the district.

Spatial relationship

The district occupies an excellent position, bounded by Arabian Sea to its west and land locked from all other sides. The district is   contiguous to its north-west with Goa state and the north by Belgaum district. To the north-east and east it is bordered by Dharwad district. On the east (lower half) and South east by Shimoga district and on its southern tip by Udipi district.

Economy

Agriculture, horticulture and fishing are the main occupations of the people in the district. The agriculture is subsistence in nature, which is not enough to support the farmers. The horticultural produce like arecanut, coconut, betel, cardamom and cashew are important commercial crops and support local economy of the district. The forest produce like honey, timber, fuel wood also support the forest residents.  Since antiquity it is worth to mention that local   handicraft have been in great demand not

 

 

only in other states but also in foreign countries, The district is one of the famous coconut and arecanut producers in the state. It has prime place in the production of pineapple in the state, which has highest demand in Bombay market forlocal consumption and foreign export. The district has provided sea route to foreign trade from the past many centuries till today. The glorious ports of the past like Bhatkal, Honavar have lost their supremacy, due to the development of modern ports like Mangalore and Karwar.

The economy of the coastal region, depends on marine resources and there is a wide scope for its development. The marine resources have not been exploited properly, probably due to lack of mechanized boats and local physical constraint.

From Karwar to Bhatkal, theArabian Sea is quite deep and is teeming with different economically important species. Mussels and oyster (edible), cartilaginous fishes like rays, skates, fierce,savage, different varieties of sharks (like dog fish, shark, spotted shark, hummer headed shark etc.). But marine resources so far exploited include different varieties of fishes, varieties of clams, mussels and oysters and its shells for food and for lime.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter – III

 

Water Potentialof Uttara-Kannada District

 

Sources and Utilization

Excluding the narrow and elongated strip of the coastal area, the entire district is occupied by Western Ghat. It runs from north to south in the central part of the district. It acts as an overhead tank and controls the surface and sub-surface water potential of the district. The heavy rainfall in the Western Ghat region and its steep western slope with dissected terrain ensured regular surface flow to the west. The Western Ghat acts as the main source of water potential of the district. The eastern slope from the crest of the Western Ghat as a rolling relief possesses perennial to seasonal surface potential of water.

 

The location of the district across the south-west monsoon wind is an advantages position. The Western Ghat blocks the s-w monsoon and the orographic effect helps to get heavy rainfall on the western slope and it slowly decreases towards eastern part of the district. The southernmost talukBhatkal receives highest rainfall of 417.30 cm of rainfall whereas the semi-MalnadtalukHaliyal receives 134.50 cm of rainfall.  The average rainfall position for the 50 years(1941-1991) shows that the district receives an average of 257.10 cm of rainfall. On an average the estimated volume of water received by thedistrict per year is 2, 51,85,354 X 103meters or 28.221 cubic km. It is enough to supply water for domestic water to the entire country for more than 437 days at the standard rate of consumption. It has the capacity to irrigate more than 1, 66,62,500 ha.  of agricultural land if paddy is cultivated. But the steep slope of the Western Ghat drains the heavy downpour within a short spell of time.

 

 

 

Table No. – 8

Uttara Kannada District

Average Annual Rainfall in volume (1941 – 1991)

 

Sub-region

and

Taluk

 

No. of average rainy days

 

Actual rainfall (cm)

Average volume of water receives peryear

(cubic km)

I. Coastal

110.40

364.48

11.946

Karwar

Ankola

Kumta

Honavar

Bhatkal

105

107

112

112

116

322.80

354.30

360.20

367.80

417.30

2.363

3.255

2.096

2.776

1.456

II.Malnad

100.75

269.57

14.201

Joida

Yellapur

Sirsi

Siddapur

100

101

99

103

239.80

277.20

250.00

311.30

4.619

3.607

3.300

2.675

III. Semi-

malnad

87

137.25

2.074

Haliyal

Mundgod

85

89

134.50

140.00

1.139

0.935

District Total

103

257.10

28.221

 

Surface water potential

About 87 per cent of the district area is dipping steeply to the west, which drains water to the Arabian sea within a short spell of time. The lithological character, structure, topography and thick forest cover support storage of surface and sub-surface water to some extent compared to the voluminous downpour.

The surface source of water includes the perennial rivers, streams, seasonal and perennial ponds, tanks and springs. They provide water for irrigational, domestic, industrial and many other purposes of the district.

 

 

Fig No.–  7

Uttar Kannada District : Total Water Potential

 

 

28.221

              Cubic Km

 

  • Total Water Potential

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Water Available

ForUtilization

(21.11%)

 

 

 

  • Water Utilized

 

(13.80%)

(Out of total available water)

The topography of the district is not suitable to store water in large reservoir for the better utilization of voluminous water.  As a result, the short but mighty perennial rivers and streams, perennial and seasonal ponds, springs, tanks are the main sources of surface water locally.

River Potential

The heavy and ensured rainfall supports the origin of the four mighty rivers viz., Kali, Gangavali, AghanashiniandSharavati systems in the district. All these rivers are hampered by topography and forest. The Venkatapur and other three rivers possess

seasonal and localimportance in the district. The heavy rainfall from s-w monsoon has sustained a large number of short but swift flowing streams and tributaries which

 

 

 

are almost in the west, except few flowing to the east from the crest of the western ghat in the eastern margin of the district. The lithographical character, structure and

                                                      Table No. 9

                      Uttara Kannada District: Runoff co-efficient

 

 

Sl.No.

 

Type of land use

Runoff

coefficient

1. Urban settlement area       0.80
2. Open land       0.60
3. Acacia/eucalyptus plantation       0.60
4. Scrub/grassland area       0.55
5. Agricultural land       0.50
6. Teak/bamboo plantation area       0.50
7. Coconut/arecanut plantation       0.50
8. Dry deciduous forest region       0.15
9. Moist deciduous forest region       0.15
10. Evergreen and semi-evergreen region       0.10

 

topographical condition and the thick vegetation cover of the district also help the perennial flow of the rivers.

The crest of the Western Ghat acts as distinct water divider. One of the notable water dividers of the district is located in the heart of  Malnad town Sirsi. The western slope drains rain water to the Arabian sea through theAghanashiniand  theGangavali rivers. Whereas its eastern tilt drains to the Bay of Bengal throw the river Varda. Such water dividers are also seen in the MalnadtalukSiddapur  and part of  the semi-MalnadtaluksMundgod and Haliyal. The main characteristic feature of the rivers in

 

 

the study area is headword erosion. The Sharavatiand  theKali rivers drain in a large portion  of the plateau and through their captured courses, these waters into the Arabian sea and extend, estuary mouth headword. These characteristics have resulted in the occurrence of river captures in many places. The most prominent one is of the

Pandri  river, a tributary of the river Kali. The Pandririver flows from north-west to south-east direction in the Joidataluk for 65 km and then takes a westerly turn to join the kali river. Such features of    capture and headword erosion of tributary streams have led to the formation of deep valleys and cutting of river banks, resulting in the deviation of water courses and discharges ground water regularly during summer.

From the eastern edge of the Western Ghat the topography is rolling gently to the east. It drains a few initial streams and tributaries of Varda, Dharma and other rivers which are partly perennial these days due to severe degradation and loss of forest.

Table No.–10

Uttara Kannada District :Drainage Area and Average

Annual flow of West Flowing Rivers

 

Sl. No.

River Basin

Average annual  Rain fall (mm)

Catchment Area

in sq. km.

Average Annual flow mm3

1.

Kali

2,436

4,188

6,631

2.

Gangavali

2,039

3,574

4,737

3.

Aghanashini

2,956

1,330

3,790

4.

Venkatapur

3,877

543

1,445

Tank Potential

In Uttara Kannada district tanks are the sources of water for irrigation pisciculture and natural fishing and it is also source for cattle and wild animals. They are widely distributed in the eastern slope of Western Ghat where the undulated and rolling relief gave way to the origin of tanks, but the lithological condition, structure and type of soil are not favorable for holding water for a long.

 

Fig. No.–8

River Potential of the District

The location of the Western Ghatacross s-w monsoon precipitate heavily and the district receives an average of 28.221 cubic km.of water potential every year

 

Kali   —  184 km.Gangavali — 161 km.

 

Aghanashini–  121   km.Sharavati  — 128 km.

 

The steep western slope is not suitable for the origin of tanks. The improvement in relief condition at the foothill parts of the Western Ghat supports distribution of tanks.  Most of these tanks are shallow and seasonal due to the severe silting, poor water holding capacity and the porous lateritic base and seepage.

 

Fig. No.  —  9

 

 

 

In the coastal region, the ground water is rich but the relief is not supported for the wide distribution of tanks. As such the distributions of tanks are less in number and size but they are perennial compared to other two regions of the district.

Table No.  – 11

Uttara Kannada District : Hydro-electric Power Potential

Sl.  No.

Name of the river

Total capacity

in Mega watt’s (M.W.)

Annual energy

generating

capacity in

(M.U.)

  Sharavathi Basin    
  1. Existing Projects       1,478.22     5,430.00
  Kali Basin    
  1. Existing Projects        1180.00       4432.00
  2. Future major Projects          460.00      1,312.00
  Bedthi Basin    
  1. Future Projects         210.00          911.00
  Aghanashin Basin    
  1. Future major projects         650.00       2,210.00
  District Total      3,978.22     14,295.00

Sources:Hand book, Karnataka Power Corporation Limited,  Shakti Bhavan

Bangalore.

Totally there are 943 tanks are identified in the district. Out of it, 523 tanksare distributed in the Malnad region. The semi-Malnadregion possesses 303 tanks. The coastal region, there are 117 tanks. In general the Malnad tanks are more perennial compared to the semi-Malnad region, which is mainly due to the location of tanks are found in the undulated terrain and deeper part of the valley.  The heavy rainfall of the region also helps to store more water storage in these tanks. But the rolling relief provided wide spread but shallow water storage structure to these tanks. The decreased rainfall also affected the storage capacity of water in these tanks. These days most of the tanks are becoming shallow due to degradation of forest and severe silting. Introduction of drinking water schemes is also one of the causes for negligence of

 

thesetanks by the local people. As a result there is decreased importance of these tanks as a source of water for drinking  domestic use and washing clothes.

Sub–surface water potential

Underground water forms an important source of water in the district. Almost all people of the district is depends on ground water for their drinking, domestic and irrigational requirements. Thoughthe district is blessed with heavy rainfall the ground water storage and water holding capacity of the sub-surface vary from place to place. The local differences in the nature of relief, structure, rock, and soil types and density of vegetative cover have led to an uneven distribution of underground water potential in the district.Table No. – 12

Uttara Kannada District

Number of Tanks and water potential

 

Sl.No.

Sub-region

and

Taluk

No. of Tanks

WaterPotential

in ham.

I.

Coastal

117

144.81

2.

3.

4.

5

Karwar

Ankola

Kumta

Honavar

Bhatkal

19

27

15

27

29

4.46

91.10

33.70

            3.87

11.68

II.

Malnad

523

974.70

6..

7.

8.

9.

Joida

Yellapur

Sirsi

Siddapur

27

92

229

175

4.30

64.22

871.63

34.55

III.

Semi-malnad

303

3,204.70

10.

11.

Haliyal

Mundgod

131

172

3023.91

180.79

District Total

943

4,324.21

 

The district consists of Archaean rock formation characterized by a system of steep hills and ridges. Laterite occurs overlying the hard schist and granites which do not possess the primary porosity. The river bank and coastal plain consist of loose sand and gravel. Under this lithological condition the storage and availability of ground water varies among regions and from place to place.

The main aquifers in Uttara Kannada are the weaker, weathered and fractured zones of granites, gneissesand Meta volcanic, Metasedimentary, laterites along with thealluvial patches found along the major stream courses. This hard rock in the area do not possess the primary porosity, the secondary structures like joints, fissures and faults present in the formation acts as porous media for storage of ground water. It is estimated that about 3 per cent of volume of the formation facilitate to store ground water. The ground water in the phreatic zone generallyoccurs within the depth range of 3 to 30 mbgl. But in the fractured zone it occurs in the depth zones within the depth of 185 mbgl.  The alluvial in the rivers bank is up to14 meters thick which hold bank storage occurs up to 50 meters. The ground water is being exploited from within the depth range of 3.00 to 31.00 mbgl. through dug well and 30 to 200 mbgl. through bore well.

The dense and widely covered forest protected the sub-surface from deep weathering.  However the biological weathering is more active in the superficial layer of the earth. Ground water generally occurs in the weaker zones of geological formations under unconfined to semi-unconfined condition. At places its depth is up to 14 meters thickness. At the base of hard and compact rocks primary porosity does not exist. The recharge of dynamic water resources is depending upon annual precipitation. The major via media are the percolation from the surface water conservation structures and seepages from deep valley and river courses.  Laterite is the major soil of the district which is highly porous and helps to recharge the underground immediately during s-w monsoon. But its poor water holding capacity depletes level of water table immediately after rainy season.

 

The western margin is characterized by loose coastal alluvial, red loam, red sandy loam, sandy saline soils are the other types of soil of the district. It is a rich zone of underground water source at a lower depth especially on estuarine and coastal plain which supply ensured water resource throughout the year.

 

Table No.–13

Uttara Kannada District – Ground Water Availability -2011

Sl.No.

Taluk andSub-regions

Net ground wateravailability

I.

Coastal

16,619.22

 

1.

Karwar

1,072.10

2.

Ankola

3,243.40

3.

Kumta

2,838.97

4.

Honavar

3,566.12

5.

Bhatkal

5,898.63

II.

Malnad

26,745.56

 

6.

Joida

5,814.13

7.

Yellapur

7,260.66

8.

Sirsi

7,762.48

9.

Siddapur

5,908.29

10

Semi-malnad

9540.38

11.

Haliyal

4,500.64

12.

Mundgod

5,039.74

13

Total

52,905.16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter—IV

 

Utilization of Water Potential

 

The economy of the district is flourished by the primary activities like agriculture, horticulture and fishing. No large scale industry exists except west coast paper mill Dandeli. Small scale industries are also very limited and most of them are seasonal which support limited workers. Under the circumstances it is inevitable to utilizeavailable land intensively by using water potential to maximize field profit.  But the rugged topography and the vast forest area and limited land distributed in isolated patches put hurdle for the utilization of the rich water potential of the district. Except few fields adjacent to river banks, the availability of rich water potential of the district can’t be   favorable for utilizing it for irrigation easily.

Rivers courses, streams, springs and tanks are the surface sources of water for irrigation, domestic and other uses for the local people.  Springs are confined to the valleys, the fractured and faulted zones and other low lying regions of the district where the water table is at ground level. In the coastal region, the loose and weaker sediments provide potential water sources.

The perennial rivercourses and tributaries act as irrigational canal at many places. The total length of main rivers andtheir perennial tributary courses exceed to more than 1,250 km. in the district. In addition to thisthe number of initial streams and tributaries are spread over the district are also capable of supplying water for irrigation seasonally. But most of these courses are found in the dense forest and in the deep valleys which are not at the easy reaches of agricultural land at many places. In the upper reaches of the coastal region at many places such courses are closer to crop land are used for irrigation of arecanut and coconut plantation. In the lower reaches, these   perennial courses are saline due to the tidal effects which are not suitable forthe irrigation.

 

Cropping Season and Water Utilization

The district practices two cropping seasons. The cultivation of Kharif crop is entirely depends on the s-w monsoon in the district. Paddy is the main crop, widely distributed in the district. Cotton and Jowar are extended in the semi-Malnad region due to the marginal change in geographical condition.The cropping season slightly varies from the coastal to the Malnad and semi-Malnad region. The cultivation starts immediately at the beginning of s-w monsoon in the coastal region due to the early approach of monsoon.The fertile loose alluvial and sandy loamy soils helpagricultural practice earlier. The warm and moist coastal climate helpcrop maturity earlier and which help them to go for Rabi crop by using the residual moisture.

In the Malnad region the agricultural practice begins late compared to the coastal region to avoid, the disturbance of theirtreating   monsoon during the harvesting period. Farmers normally use the long durational varieties of paddy to harvest after the north-east monsoon. The transplantation method of cultivation is generally practiced in the Malnad region. The rainfall decreases in the semi-Malnad region. As a result the agricultural practices also change from the transplantation to the sowing except a few fields in the low lands.

The Rabi season is practiced during winter in the early summer (October to March). There is an increasing trend ofRabi crops in all the sub-regions of the district. It starts little earlier in the coastal region than the other two regions. No extensive irrigational facility is provided to grow crops in the district except local source of water.    The varieties of crops like rice, groundnut and different types of vegetables are grown during the Rabiseason by using the residual moisture and the local water sources. Paddy is the main crop cultivated during the Rabi season using the local source of water. In the coastal plain and the foot hill valleys the perennial streams and springs support cultivation of paddy as the Rabi crop. Growing of groundnut is extensively extended in the coastal region using residual moisture. The coastal taluks

 

water utilized by individual farmer. like Bhatkal, Honavar and Kumta are the leading iningroundnutcultivation. The loose coastal sandy alluvial soil suitably supports thecultivation   of groundnut. Growing of vegetables and onion are also extended usingthe local sources of water in the coastal region. Alvikode, Herigutti  and Gokarna

Fig. No.  10

villages are the important grower of these crops in Kumtataluka, whereas Kasarkod and Gunvanti villages  of Honavartaluk are  the other important grower of vegetables in the coastal region. The village Todur and surrounding area in Ankolataluk is popularly known for growing of watermelon as Rabi crop. Sugarcane is grown using the local source of water during the summer in the interior valleys and estuarine plain of the coastal region during Rabi season. The southern tip, Bhatkal has widely

extended floriculture traditionally. It is very famous in growing the best variety of Malligewhich hashigh demand in the local market and outside the states like Kerala

 

Table No.  – 14

Uttara Kannada District : Land utilization- 2012

(Area in hectare)

Sl. No.

Taluk  and

Sub-regions

Area in hact.

Forest

area

Land not available for cultivation

Other cultivable Land

Fallow land

Net area Sown

I

Coastal

3,33,650 (32.52)

2,53,184

(31.11)

20,510

(6.15)

11,129

(3.33)

13,118

(3.93)

35,709

(10.70)

1.

Karwar

73,210 (7.13)

55,104

(6.77)

4,896

(6.69)

359

(0.49)

8,287

(11.32)

4,564

(6.23)

2.

Ankola

91,870 (8.95)

75,374

(9.26)

3,783

(4.12)

2,940

(3.20)

2,140

(2.33)

7,633

(8.31)

3.

Kumta

58,200 (5.67)

39,641

(4.87)

5,209

(8.95)

2,838

(4.88)

1,886

(3.24)

8,626

(14.82)

4.

Honavar

75,480 (7.35)

57,632

(7.08)

5,084

(6.74)

2,987

(3.96)

650

(0.86)

9,127

(12.09)

5.

Bhatkal

34,890 (3.40)

25,433

(3.12)

1,538

(4.40)

2,005

(5.75)

155

(0.44)

5,759

(16.51)

II.

Malnad

5,40,680 (52.70)

4,54,259

(55.84)

25,742

(4.76)

14,373

(2.66)

3,788

(0.70)

42,518

(7.86)

6.

Joida

1,92,630 (18.77)

1,65,873

(20.38)

17,010

(8.83)

1,800

(0.93)

2,131

(1.11)

5,816

(3.02)

7.

Yellapur

1,30,110

(12.68)

1,16,986

(!4.38)

2,218

(1.70)

1,893

(1.45)

548

(0.42)

8,465

(6.51)

8.

Sirsi

132,010

(12.86)

1,03,270

(12.70)

4,118

(3.12)

6,903

(5.23)

370

(0.28)

17,156

(12.99)

9.

Siddapur

85,930 (8.37)

68,130

(8.37)

2,203

(2.56)

3,777

(4.39)

739

(0.86)

11,081

(1.29)

III

Semi-malnad

1,51,550 (14.77)

1,06,152

(13.05)

5,730

(3.78)

2,379

(1.57)

3,214

(2.12)

34,075

(22.48)

10.

Haliyal

84,740 (8.26)

57,819

(7.10)

3,929

(4.64)

883

(1.04)

2,253

(2.66)

1,98,56

(23.43)

11.

Mundgod

66,810 (6.51)

48,333

(5.94)

1,801

(2.69)

1,496

(2.24)

961

(1.44)

14,219

(21.28)

 

District Total

10,25,880 (100)

8,13,595(1

(100)

51,982

(100)

27,881

(100)

20,120

(100)

1,12,302

(100)

 

 

and Bombay due to its pleasant flavor. It gives casual income to the farmer and local people.  The cultivation of these crops is entirely dependent on local source of water during the summer.

In the Malnad region the low lying fields and valley regions are flourished the with water sources are given for the paddy cultivation as a Rabi crop. The residual moisture in the fields is used for the cultivation of a variety of grams and vegetables. Recently the cultivation of ginger and other varieties of vegetables are practiced due to high demand in local and outside market.

The semi-Malnadfields are generally dry after Kharif crop. The residual moisture rarely exists for a short period of time.  Such fields are used for the cultivation of different variety of grams.  Farmers have also extended irrigation from local sources in the recent years to grow vegetables and mulberry at many places. Fruit gardens like of pineapple, mango etc, are widely extended using the local source of water.  Except groundnut, growing all other crops during Rabi season depends on different sources of water. Growing different varieties of green vegetables, onion, watermelon and agricultural crops like rice and sugarcane demand more water for its cultivation. The local sources like tanks, streams and wells are used to supply water to these crops. With the passage of time it depletes surface and sub-surface sources of water and also dries up completely inmany places to considerable extent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table No.–15

Uttara Kannada District

Kharif Crop Land Utilization – 2012

 

Sl. No.

Taluk and

Sub-regions

Total cultivable land

Fallow and cultivable waste land

Net area

under cultivation

I.

Coastal

50,359

14,650

35,709

1.

Karwar

12,961

8,397

4,564

2.

Ankola

9,779

2,146

7,633

3.

Kumta

11,275

2649

8,626

4.

Honavar

10,257

1,130

9,127

5.

Bhatkal

6,087

328

5,759

II.

Malnad

48,814

6,296

42,518

6.

Joida

8,990

3,174

5,816

7.

Yellapur

9,782

1,317

8,465

8.

Sirsi

18,172

1,016

17,156

9.

Siddapur

11,870

789

11,081

III.

Semi-malnad

38,699

4,624

34,075

10.

Haliyal

22,399

2,543

19,856

11.

Mundgod

16,300

2,081

14,219

District total

1,37,872

25,570

1,12,302


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table No. – 16

 

Uttara Kannada District :  Rabi Crop Land Utilization- 2012

 

Sl. No.

Taluk

and

sub-regions

Total cultivable land

Kharif crop

under cultivation

Rabi

crop under cultivation

  I.

Coastal

50,359

35,709

5,294

  1.

Karwar

12,961

4,564

  220

  2.

Ankola

9,779

7,633

           1,012

  3.

Kumta

11,275

         8,626

1,346

  4.

Honavar

10,257

9,127

1,533

  5.

Bhatkal

6,087

5,759

1,183

  II.

Malnad

48,814

42,518

3653

  6.

Joida

8,990

5,816

  264

  7.

Yellapur

9,782

8,465

  528

  8.

Sirsi

18,172

17,156

1,982

  9.

Siddapur

11,870

       11,081

879

 III.

Semi-malnad

38,699

34,075

2,284

 10.

Haliyal

22,399

19,856

          1,497

 11.

Mundgod

16,300

14,219

            787

 

District Total

1,37,872

       1,12,302

         11,231

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table No. —  17

 

Uttara Kannada District

Decadal Variation in Crop Land use(2002to  2012)

 

Sl. No.

Taluk& Sub-regions

Total Cultivable Land

Kharif Crop

Rabi Crop

 

2002

2012

Variat

ion

2002

2012

Variat

ion

2002

2012

Variation

I

Coastal

41,678 50,359  

+8681

 

36,605 35,709   -1,682 6,323 5,294 -1029

1

Karwar

6,006 12,961 +6955 6982 4564 +2418 272 220 -52

2

Ankola

9,066 9,779 +713 7915 7633 -282 1120 1012 -108

3

Kumta

9,956 11,275 +1319 8233 8626 -393 1553 1346 -207

4

Honavar

9,461 10,257 +796 7856 9127 +1271 1807 1533 -274

5

Bhatkal

7,189 6,087 -1102 5619 5759 +140 1571 1183 -388

II

 

Malnad

42,670 48,814 +6144 39,191 42,518 +3,327 2,401 3,653  

+1252

 

6

Joida

5,855 8,990 +3135 5603 5816 +213 241 264 +23

7

Yellapur

8,294 9,782 +1488 8096 8465 +369 155 528 +373

8

Sirsi

16,775 18,172 +1397 15166 17156 +1990 1150 1982 +832

9

Siddapur

11,746 11,870 +124 10326 11081 +755 855 879 +24

III

Sem-malnad

34,648 38,699 +4051 33,595 34,075 +480 1,495 2284 +789

10

Haliyal

19,857 22,399 +2542 20293 19856 -437 1213 1497 +284

11

Mundgod 14,791 16,300 +1509 13302 14219 +917 282 787 +505

 

 

Total

118996 137872 +18876 109391 1,12,302 +2,125 10,219 11,231  

+1012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter –V

Causes for forest Degradation

    The topographical condition, structure and types of rock and soil andsurface cover, density and type of forest, amount of rainfall are the main controlling factors of water potential on one side. On the contrary increasing population and their increased economic activities demand water for domestic use. Industry and increased area in agriculture and horticulture demand more water for utilizationfrom coastal proper up to the edge of foothills of the Western Ghat.

The recent report of Central Ground Water Board, south western region, Bangalore clearly indicates that there has been continuous depletion of ground water level in the district in the recent years. Following are the main causes for the depletion of surface and sub-surface water potential of the district viz,

1.  Forest loss and its degradation

2.Increasing populationand economic activity

3.Attraction towards horticultural crops

 

  1. 1.   Forest loss and its degradation

There is a close relation between forest and water conservation. Earlier the dense and evergreen forest ensured perennial flow of surface water and availability of ground water at a higher level. The recharge of ground water was ensured by controlling the flow of runoff. As per the departmental source the district possess8,13,595 hect. (79.31 per cent) of land belongs to forest department but the actual forest coverage and its density does not match with the official figure. The latest satellite image gives the ground reality in a better way which shows much barren and degraded forest areas in the district except the elongated strip of Western Ghat. The degradation and loss of forest slowly increases on either side of the Western Ghat. It reaches its maximum on the crest of the Western Ghat and the eastern slope in the

 

 

Malnad and semi-Malnad region. In the coastal region it extendsfrom coastal proper up to the edge of foothills of Western Ghat.

 

The process of exploitation had relatively been slow in earlier periods while it has been speeded up in the recent years. The growing human pressure have led to wide spread degradation of forests. It has resulted in depletion of forest wealth of the district. At many places the best natural forests are dwindling and are being replaced by commercially important and fast growing species like Acacia. The plant structure has less runoff holding capacity and has less impact on conservation of water.

 

According to the latest survey the present extent of dense forest in the district is 68.63 per cent. The per capita forest has been decreased to 0.57 ha. as compared to 0.98 in 1990-91. Quite a large area of forest is turned into scrub and open jungle even in the evergreen forest zone. The estimate data show that 2,42,457.5( 9.82 per cent) of forest area is in thedegraded condition. There are many causes for such reduction in forest density. The important factor which has caused direct impact on forest degradation and depletion of surface and sub-surface water potential of the district are as below:

(a)Demand for fuel wood

(b) Demand for green manure

(c)Demand of wood for the fencing of cropland

(d)Encroachment of forest land

(e)Mining and quarrying activities in forest

(f)Illegal forest cutting

(g)Forest fire hazards

(h) Forest weed

(h) Others

 

 

 

Table No. – 18

 

Uttara kannada district

Causes of forest loss/degradation(area in ha.)

 

Sl.No.

Causes

Affected

area

   1. Cutting of green twigs as a source of green manure

52,536

   2. Continued quarrying activity in forest

21,042

   3. Fire incidence in forest

11,250

   4. Developmental activity in forest area

1,365

   5. Encroached forest land

6,497

   6. Permanent forest loss from different reasons

22,189

   Total

1,14,879

 

(a)          Increased demand for fuel wood

 

The availability of commercial sources of energy such as kerosene, L.P.G, electricity introduction of bio-gas, solar heater can be afforded by rich people in the district. The conventional or traditional source of domestic (cooking) energy still constitutes as a main source of energy in the rural area especially among the poor class people. At present the demand for firewood for domestic use is more than 4,71,002,850 metric tons per year in the district. In addition to this the local small scale industries demand large quantity of fire wood. All these demands are much more than what the district forest regenerates every year. It degrades the density of forest considerably around population concentration.

It is highly impossible on the part of the forest department to avoid carrying of head load of fire wood by the local people from nearby forest. They usually prepare to bring deadwood. But regular collection and demand for fire wood has affected chopping ofyoung undergrowth and terminal branches of live trees. It has affected regeneration of forest and degrades it continuously around settlements. As a result density of forest recedes back from towns and villages.

 

 

(b) Seasonal fencing of cropland and house compounds

 

Unless implementation of proper crop protection measures from wild animals and stray cattle, agricultural practice is a failure in the district. Kharifis the main cropping season with the approach of s-w monsoon. Cropping activity begin with the construction of fence around their croplands to protect crop. At many places land is kept fallow due to inability to construct fence due to lack of fencing materialand heavylabor cost for poor peasants.

After Kharif season,about 72 per cent of crop land retains   residual moisture, which has the capacity to grow different Rabi crops as surveyed by the researcher.  But only about 14.71 percent of the crop land is used for Rabi crops due to the severe problem of crop protection from stray cattle and wild animals.

A random survey conducted in the district by the researcher, reveals the fact that construction of seasonal fencing is a common feature in all the three sub-regions of the district at the beginning of every cropping season. It was found that on an average more than 16 meters of fence is constructed per a hectare of crop land in each taluk of the coastal region, about 24 meters in the   Malnad and 20 meters of fence is constructed in the semi-Malnad region. As a result totally about 2,922.92 km. long fence is to be erected every year for crop protection by replacing the damaged stumps of the last seasons except few original growing stumps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                        

                                        

Photo No. 1

A wooden fence constructed to protect

Coconut plantation in the coastal talukHonavar

See the amount of wooden poles used in fencing

 

Photo No. –  2

See the wooden poles and under growth

Used in the photos for the construction of Fence aroundtheir compound in a village Marakal near Kumtataluk

 

 

                                        

                                         Photo No. – 3

See the length of the seasonal wooden fence constructed to

protect plantation crop near avillage Bandal in Sirsi taluk

 

Photo No. -4

Construction of seasonal fence around paddy fields in the

Coastal taluks, Ankola and Karwar

 

 

 

Photo No. – 5

A seasonal wooden fence constructed to protect Kharif crop

near Janmane in Sirsitaluk.

See the length of wooden fence in the background

 

 

 

 

 

The remaining material for the construction of seasonal fence is entirely depending upon surrounding forest, every year. It gives us a clear picture of wood requirement for fencing agricultural land. These seasonal fences will be damaged by termite and animal attack and will not withstand to heavy rainfall, as a result it is inevitable to construct fence for every cropping season by poor peasants. The regular practice of construction of fencing materials damages the surrounding forest and undergrowth. It has severe on indirect effect surface and subsurface water conservation.

 

 

Photo No. –6

Constriction of fence aroundhouse compound in a hamlet near

Yellapur.  It is a common feature in the entire district

 

 

 

 

 

(c)  Encroachment of Forest Land

 

The district possess limited land for socio-economic activities of the people. It is inevitable on the part of the people to encroach forest land for their livelihood. Almost all forest encroachment is utilized by the people for cropping purpose. Their dependency on forest for cropping practice, fire wood and other materials are obtained from the surrounding forest.

In the recent decades the forest authority strictly stopped entry of people in forest for encroachment. Forest land encroachments have led to bitter feuds between people and the forest authorities. In spite of the steps taken by the forest department to stop further encroachment of forest land it is seen that there is careless entry into the forest

 

 

Table No.–  19

 

Uttara Kannada district: Total length of wooden fence constructed during Cropping Seasons 2014-15 (length in km.)

 

Sl.No.

Sub-regionandTaluk

Cropping Seasons

Total Length of Fence

Kharif crop(fence length)

Rabi crop

(fence length)

I.

Coastal

732.61

150.86

883.47

1.

Karwar

160.78

18.04

178.82

2.

Ankola

157.00

24.19

181.19

3.

Kumta

164.23

36.00

00.23

4.

Honavar

150.16

38.25

188.41

5.

Bhatkal

100.44

34.38

134.82

II.

Malnad

876.21

99.46

975.67

6.

Supa(Joida)

116.18

10.69

126.87

7.

Yellapur

172.72

19.14

191.86

8.

Sirsi

339.46

40.61

378.07

9.

Siddapur

247.85

29.02

278.87

III.

Semi-Malnad

933.74

130.04

1,063.78

10.

Haliyal

554.65

75.84

630.49

11.

Mundgad

379.09

54.20

433.29

District Total

2,542.56

380.36

2,922.92

Source: Field Investigation 2014-15

 

 

for encroachment upto the recent decades. The small land holders and landlesslaborers have no alternative for their livelihood which is a major contributory factor for encroachment of forest land from 1970-71 to 2000-2001nearly 6,497.298 hect.of potential forest area has been encroached, illegally which is at the rate of 324.865hect annually. Looking at the long stay in forest for their livelihood with small patch of encroached forest land for their livelihood the forest dept. has taken a step to

 

regularize this encroached forest land which have occupied before 27/04/1978. The forest encroachment cleared permanent coverage of forest and made the land barren which has its impact on conservation of water potential of the district.

 

Table No. – 20

Uttara Kannada district

Forest area encroached up to 2000-01

Sl. No.

Division

Area encroached (sq. hect.)

1.

Haliyal

847.138

2.

Honavar

1,284.900

3.

Sirsi

1,509.150

4.

Yellapur

434.000

5.

Karwar

422.110

Total

4,497.298

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(d)Quarrying Activity in Forest

 

About 26,712.70 hect.of forest land has been released on lease for different mining activities up to 1985. Out of it about 7,042.449  hect. are actually operated especially for Iron and manganese ores. At present the conservation measures of forest have completely stopped mining of rich iron ore and manganese. But the quarrying activity of laterite stones and granite is in operation in almost all taluks of the district which has highest local demand for construction of buildings and other developmental activity. The inroad into the forest area for this activity has destroyed forest considerably. It has also created environmental problem like dumps and deep trenches.. Especially in case of manganese mine at Bisgod near Yellapurtaluk, where deep trenches have been dug, which are unfilled. Such trenches may lead to sudden landslide and create risk to village cattle and wild animals.These deep trenches disturbed the original storage of waterand ground water behavior in the surrounding region.

 

Photo No.  – 7

 

Forest cover is completely lost due to the activity of laterite quarry Near village Mavinkatte  in Honavartaluk

 

Photo No. –8

 

Forest cover and surface soil is removed for laterite

quarrying near village Manki of Honavartaluk

 

(e)  Demand of green leaves for manure

 

The majority of the plantation owners are well organized and politically influential people. They put pressure on the government as as a result the forest department has released 52,536.202 ha. of forest land to plantation owners as ‘Soppinbetta’ only  to meet the demand of green leaves by virtue of the homestead and other  natural and public land laws.In order to maintain the productivity of the arecanut and spice gardens, protected

 

 

forest land proportionate to the area of areca garden (at 9:1acre) was allocated to the

purpose as Soppinabetta land. This was continued since 1902. In addition to this,

Plantation owners encroached large areas of forest even in the dense forest belt of deep interior illegally. These forest lands are given to them for the use of green leaves, but they do not pass into the hands of private individuals.

In the coastal and Malnad regions of the district, the hill gaps and valley plains are given for plantation and agricultural crops.Green leaves and twigs are the best source of manure for these plantation crops like arecanut, banana and other mixed crops like cardamom, spices etc. These crops entirely depend upon green manure to maintain humus and for holding moisture in the soil.

These privately owned forest ‘Soppinbetta’ lands are incapable of supporting forest produce and environmental balance.The repeated cutting of green twigs affects plant growth which appears as dried and dead tree. Such degraded forests are noted in many parts of Malnadtaluk like Sirsi, Siddapur and Yellapur and in almost all around arecanut and coconut plantations.

The studies revealed that nearly 70 per cent ofbetta lands are in degraded condition and have become grasslands instead of being covered by useful required number of trees in such land. As such these belts are becoming easier grounds for severe soil erosion and increased silting and swallowing of river valleys, tanks and other water bodies.

(f) Demand for Grazing by Domestic Animals in Forest

 

The survival of domestic animals like cattle, goats andsheeps are almost depends on grasslands and forest under growth. Croplands produce only meager quantity of fodder which is supplied by paddy, jower, maize and other agricultural crops.

The livestock population of the district is more than 4, 67,460 they demand more than 1, 18,895 quintals of fodder per day. As such the district demands 4, 33, and 96,952. tones of fodder per year. Only a meager quantity of fodder is supplied by agricultural crops, which is not enough to feed the total cattle strength of the district even for 45 days.

Photo No. – 9

Cutting of green twigs and undergrowth for green manure see the bundles of green twigs carrying by the plantation grower in the coastal talukKumta

Photo No. — 10

Degraded Evergreen forest due to cutting of green twigs for

manure for plantation cropsin the Malnadtaluks

See the Skeleton like structure of plants

 

Therefore forsurvival they entirely depend on croplands, grasslands and forest undergrowth. The demand for fodder has rapidly outstripped the sustainable yield of forest. It has severe impact on regeneration of the undergrowth. As a resultdense forest in the Malnad and semi-Malnad regions is degrading at a faster rate. Itintensifies surface runoff and evapotranspiration of ground water effect on underground seepage and recharge of water

 

(g)   Forest Weed (Eupatorium Odoratum)

 

Eupatorium Odoratum is a tropical species of weed grows luxuriantly with wide spread stems,which grows up to 2.5 meters height as a bush. Its leaves are 4-10 cm long and 1.5cm wide. Its flowers are white to pale pink and tubular with average seed production per plant is 80,000 to 90,000. It is native of east to north-eastern part of U.S.A. It made its entry with wheat import from U.S.A. to India during 1960-70 and vigorously spreading in India.

 

Its seed size is very minute, which is easily carried by wind action into open space, by animals and birds, by movement of people, vehicles, trains and run-off. It is easily spreads in open space in forest, residential areas and in other open space.

 

The vigorous growth of weed eupatorium odoratum is spread all around in the lower canopy which is seriously affecting the regeneration of native species. The growth of pasture is very much declined in the region. It has serious effect on food source of herbivores animals in forest and cattle. The weed dries up during summer and keeps the ground open for bright sunshine. It is susceptible to fire and burns vigorouslyand destroys regeneration of native species and degrades forest cover and effect on water sources.

 

 

Photo No.—1

See thevigorousgrowth of forest weed

‘Eupatorium Odoratum’

This is widely spread in the degraded

forest region of the district

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table N0. – 21

Uttara kannada District

Taluka wise Distributionof  Eupatorium Odoratum

Sl.No. Region and taluk Distribution

(in sq.km.)

Percentage
I. Coastal region

3,899

33.08

 

  1. Karwar

627

4.87

  2. Ankola

1,016

9.33

  3. Kumta

856

7.49

  4. Honavar

860

7.53

  5. Bhatkal

640

5.06

  II. Malnad

5,364

52.08

  6. Joida

944

17.17

  7. Yellapur

1,264

14.27

  8. Sirsi

1,705

12.14

  9. Siddapur

1,451

8.50

 III. Semi-malnad

1,700

14.84

 10. Haliyal

780

8.49

 11. Mundgod

920

6.67

  Total

10,963

100

Source : Field investigation

 

(h)  Other causes

 

The industrial demand of wood has its impact on forestdegradation. The installation of paper mill at Dandeli is based on the availability of luxuriant and extensivegrowth of bamboo in the MalnadtalukJoida, Yellapur and semi-malnadtaluksHalyal and part of Mundgod. The modernization of paper mill at Dandelidemands large quantity of soft wood from the district forest. In the recent decades there is acute shortage of ray material to run the industry. As a result it is dependent on raw material brought from outside the district and abroad. The minor industries like match stick, cane products, tile bricks kilns, bakeries, parched rice mills etc., are directly dependent upon forest which has caused the forest clearance and changing pattern of forest in the district has its impact on water resources of the district.

 

 

Forest fire is one of the destructive forces of forest undergrowth. It takes place accidentally or intentionally during summer. The dried up undergrowth is more sensitive to fire which affect the regeneration of forest and degrade its density. The barren surface widely exposes to sun light and indirectly effect on surface and ground water resource.With all the efforts made by the forest department, it is inevitable to protect forest from illegal cutting. The local residents and farmer illegally cut bamboo and other wood for their house roofing and agricultural equipment.All these activities have its impact on loss and degradation of forest which has direct or indirect effect on surface and sub-surface water source.

 

2.Increasing  Population and economic activity

 

Considering the relation between man and waterutilization emphasis has been laid on detailed account of population is of low density and low growth rate. From a base of 4, 54,490 persons in 1901 the total population of the district in 2011 census increased to 14, 36,847persons.

Following the construction of the Kali hydro-electric project and the setting up of the Kaiga Atomic power project, the naval base and the Sharavati Tailrace hydel project brought people from outside. In addition to this the introduction of small scale industries and few medium scale industries, introduction of new educational institutes, improvement in tourist activities and hotels attracted people from outside and added population to the district in addition to natural growth.

As a result there is increased consumption of water in the recent decades. It is estimated that at the standard rate of consumption the urban area demands 3,82,60,000liters of domestic water whereas in the rural area the domestic water demand is 5,60,03,000 liters per day. At this rate of consumption the annual demand of domestic water is 9,42,63,000 liters. Wells, bore wells and tap water are the source

of domestic water in the urban areas. In rural area water supply schemes are not

widely extended due to isolated pattern of settlement. In general each house normally

Possesses a well for domestic supply of water. These day’s tanks are not maintained properly to supply water for domestic consumption.

Table No.22

Uttara Kannada District

Per Day Domestic Water Demand 2011

Sl. No.

Taluk and

Sub- division

Urban

Population

Water Demand (in liters) 1000

Rural Population

Water Demand (in liters)

Total Water Demand (in liters) 1000

I.

Coastal

2,19,020

15,333

5,26,033

2,89,33

44,266

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Karwar

Ankola

Kumta

Honavar

Bhatkal

81427

32001

36756

19106

49730

5700

2240

2575

1337

3481

73716

75427

117759

147284

111847

4054

4148

6478

8101

6152

 9754

6388

9053

9438

9633

II

Malnad

97,103

15,751

3,17,450

17,460

33,211

6.

7.

8.

9.

Joida

Yellapur

Sirsi

Siddapur

19875

63015

14213

1391

4411

9949

52013

58216

123999

83222

2861

3202

6820

4577

2861

4593

11231

14526

III.

Semi-malnad

1,02,508

7,176

1,74,733

9,610

16,786

10

11

Mundgod

Haliyal

22571

79937

1580

5596

83694

91039

4603

5007

6183

10603

 

District Total

4,18,631

38,260

10,18,216

56,003

94,263

 

 

  1. 2.   Attraction TowardsHorticulture Crops

 

The regional variation in geographic condition has given different pattern of cropping and methods of practice in the district. Cultivation of paddy is not ensured to yield good crop due to uncertainty of rainfall, non- availability of labor at right time and protection of crops from wild animals and stray cattle are the increased problem of the farmer.    

 

Table No. –23

Uttara Kannada District

                 Taluk-wise Domestic Consumption of Water

Sl. No.

Taluks

AndSub-regions

No. of House

hold

Sources of Domestic Consumption of Water

(Fig. in percentage)

Tap

Borewell

Well

Tank and Lakes

River Courses

Spring

I

Coastal

1,39,030

9.76

5.95

80.24

1.71

1.43

0.49

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Karwar

Ankola

Kumta

Honavar

Bhatkal

34,654

20,460

27,564

32,160

24,192

18.13

13.40

5.66

7.99

3.60

10.23

6.06

7.65

2.58

3.23

69.61

74.30

83.66

84.64

88.99

1.12

1.64

1.06

2.75

2.77

0.14

1.25

1.93

1.89

1.96

0.48

0.78

0.38

0.46

0.37

II

Malnad

79,708

26.5

9.59

49.98

6.23

3.61

3.22

6.

7.

8.

9.

Joida

Yellapur

Sirsi

Siddapur

9,844

14,779

35,145

19,940

51.83

24.98

20.83

8.36

14.27

15.05

5.86

3.20

14.77

40.15

67.69

77.34

6.89

8.14

3.55

6.33

6.38

3.17

2.50

2.39

5.53

3.69

1.81

1.82

III

Semi-malnad

47,753

67.92

20.51

9.35

0.80

2.00

0.71

10.

11.

Haliyal

Mundgod

31,190

16,563

78.55

57.30

12.10

28.92

6.38

12.33

0.56

1.04

1.20

0.80

1.06

0.37

District Total

2,66,491

34.73

12.02

46.52

2.91

2.35

1.47

The isolated patches of field do not provide wide extensive land for cultivation. On an average the district has 1.24 hect. of field  size. The highest average field size of 2.77 hect. is distributed in the semi-MalnadtalukHaliyal,whereas the lowest of  0.68 hect. is distributed in Bhatkaltaluk.

In the recent years most of the farmersshowing interest  for economically profitable horticultural cropslike arecanut, coconut, cardamom, pepper,plantain etc., they are commercial crops suitably growing in the geographical condition of the district. The land under horticultural crop was 0.35 per cent (3,572 hect.) in the year 1971 has been increased to 2.17 per cent (22,280 hect.) in the year 1991.

 

 

 

At present it is increased to3.08 per cent. This mixed horticultural crop gives regularincome and more profitthan the agricultural crops to farmer. It also provides more employment to the local labors.

Coconut is widely grown in the coastal region, whereas arecanut, cardamom and pepper are the main horticultural crops in the Malnad region. Farmers of the semi-Malnad region show less interest in cultivation of these crops due to change in the local geographical condition.

It is noticed that the land under horticultural crop is considerably increased in the Malnad and Coastal region. The semi-Malnad region shows increasing trend in plantation crop like mango and banana. With theinstallation of sugar mill at Haliyal, cultivationof sugarcane is widely extended in the semi-Malnad region which demands much water during summer. The horticultural crops like arecanut , coconut, banana,  cardamom, spices and many other varieties of crops are grown using surface and subsurface sources of water during summer.

                                                                                

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter –VI

 

Degradation of Forest and Its Impact on

Water resources

 

There is close relation between forest cover and water conservation. The areas with dense forest cover flourished with rich surface and subsurface water potential compared to that of degraded and barren surface in the district.

Impact on Surface Water Potential

 

The degradation of forest cover in the Malnad and semi-Malnad region has resulted in increased runoff which has accelerated the menace of losing the soil surface and the havoc caused by heavy rainfall on the bare surfaces at many places in all the sub-regions is very dissonantly seen.On the other hand there is increase in runoff and it has affected the process of recharge of underground water table. It has resulted lowering of water table, swallowing the water storing capacity of nearby ponds, tanks, streams and river beds  in the Malnad, semi-Malnad and in the foot hill parts of the coastal region.The change in micro-climate caused increased rate of evaporation dries up shallow tank and surface streams at the retreatof monsoon.

In the Malnad region heavy down pour supported by degraded forest and steep slope is the powerful agent in clearing the top soil within short period of time unless there is thick cover of forest

The steep western slope of the Malnad region supported by degraded forest surface clears voluminous water received by heavy rainfall within a short spell of time. The increased runoff has accelerated the menace of losing soil surface.

The researcher surveyed the region and gathered the opinion and studied the behavioral change of surface and ground water. It is seen that the streams and tributaries of Perennial Rivers of the past dries up at the beginning of early summer. The ground water behavior shows remarkable change in the recent past. Most of the perennial wells had become   deep and dry at the beginning of summer.

                                                 

 

                                                  Photo No. – 12

 

See the seasonal variation of flow of water in one of the

ofBedti river  in the upper course

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo No.– 13

 

See the dry river beds of river Bedti (left) in its upper course and dead storage of water in the middle course of river Aghanasini(right) at the beginning of

summerin the year 2016

 

Dead storage of  water  in Aghanashini river bed in the lower course in the

                                                        month of May 2016

 

Cropland extension and exploitation of forest for fire wood are the main causes that affect forest. In addition to this illegal cutting of logs and fencing materials are the other affecting factors for permanent loss and degraded forest. As a result semi-Malnad region shows a remarkable change in forest cover.

Compared to other two regions, the rainfall decreases in the semi-Malnad along with this fine grained sticky type of soil isalso affecting the recharging process considerably. Runoff carried by turbid water,joins the nearby water bodies reducing the storage capacity which has serious impact on aquatic ecosystem. In the foot hill

Photo No.  —  14

A dried up ‘Arasami tank’ near Honavar town at the beginningof early summer.Earlier it was perennial even during summer. See the filled uptank at the beginning of s-w monsoon

Photo No,–15

A dried up holy spring Ramatirtha at the beginning of early summer (left). Earlier it was perennial during summer and flowing forcefully.At present out flow is declining due to depletion of groundwater in the recent years even during s-w monsoon  (right)

 

 

 

Photo No.–  16

 

A dried up reservoir Bachangiinearly summer

InMundgodtaluk is one of themain local irrigational source.

 

 

 

Photo No.  — 17

A dead storage of water in the Sanavalli reservoir in Mundgodtalukearly summerin early summerin early summer

Photo No. –18

See the dried up tank Devikere in the heart of Sirsi town during

early summer.Earlier it was perennial andsource of water

for irrigation. Moreover the garbage is dump in the tank.

 

 

parts of the coastal region the evergreen forest is recklessly destroyed up to the edge of Western Ghat. The barren surface with steep slope support swift flow of rainfall. As a result the process of recharge of water is affected in the hilly region.

The coastal region is differing in its lithology and relief. Laterite is widely distributed which helps the recharge of ground water vigorously due to high porosity. But high porosity can’t hold ground water at a higher level. Suchgeological condition is prevailing taluk such as Kumta, Honavar and some part of Bhatkal. But in Karwar and northern part of Ankolataluk the behavior of ground water depends upon the local lithology, structure and topography of the location. In these areas lateritic base are replaced by hard and massive rocks of igneous type.

In the coastal plain the ground water is rich and available at a shallow depth due to proper storage condition in loose sandy base. Whereas the western  edge of the coastal plain the ground water is much affected  by saline ingression due to mismanagement of crop land and breach of bunds allow saline water to enter inside the land and converts fresh water into saline.The rearrangement of the flood plain due toincreased

silting causes erosion of river banks every year. It has given way to entry of saline water into the plain at many places resulting salinity of ground.

 

 

Impact on tank potential

 

Tanks are local store houses of water.The rolling relief provided number of ponds and tanks in the district.  These water bodies become shallow due to silting and unable to hold much water and becoming non-perennial during early summer.  Tanks act as local aquatic eco-system also helps to enrich underground water. At present they are used for the cultivation of rabi and plantation crops.  Earlier tanks were the main source of water for domestic use and cattle rearing. Byintroduction of wide spread drinking water schemes most of these tanks are neglected in many places. Moreover most of these tanks become seasonal due to silting and mismanagement.   The increased soil erosion due to degraded forest on the hill slope has its impacton these

tanks. At present tanks are mismanaged and are becoming shallow due to silting and holds limited storage of water. At places small tanks turned to frog ponds. The added

silt and soluble salts, organic matter, nutrients like phosphorus carried away by near  forest and paddy fields damages the fresh water eco-systems of tanks. The enriched nutrients stimulated growth of algae in most of the tanks in the district.

Aquatic plants and roots serve as natural nursery for variety of fishes and crustaceans. The organism in the aquatic system decomposes algae and use as a  source of food. In this process the amount of oxygen reduces which affected aquatic life. In some places tank water turns to deep greenish where the penetration of sun light is diminished. It can directly affect aquatic plants glade and plankton which reside at the bottom of the food chain. Many fishes lay eggs on gravel and stream bed andgravel areas near the shores of tanks. The increased silt and gravel provided no platform for fish to lay eggs and has less chance of hatching. The tanks which are located in the town and nearby places are affected by sewage.  The cleaning of vehicles adds toxic contaminatesand chemicals like heavy metals, visibility of oil and grease film floating on water is concentrating in these tanks. It isidentified that these

contents are in traces and which has less effected on aquatic life except the tanks located close to towns.

 

In the Malnad and semi-Malnadregions these tanks are local store houses of water and are the source of water for brick kilns and construction work. Earlier tanks were innumerable and perennial in nature and used for agriculture and domestic purpose.

They are shallow to little deep up to the reaches of watertable and important sources of water in the semi-Malnad. They range from few square feet to several sq.km.in area. The Gudnapura tank near Banavasi in Sirsitaluk is the largest tank in Uttara Kannada which is spread over more than 6.5 sq.km. during rainy season. This tank is locally used for irrigation, fish culture and recreation. Due to silting, the tank often becomes shallow. Other important tanks worth mentioning in Sirsitaluk are Chanapurkeri (near village Husri) a perennial tank completely filled with silt and

become shallow and seasonal. The Malnadtaluks such as Yellapur and Siddapur

possesses number of mismanaged tanks with different nature which are also not an ensured supplier of water during summer. The undulated terrain condition of the semi-

Malnad tanks blessed with enumerable tanks. Due tosevere silting they are shallow and holds limited water. As a result it has limited capacity to support local agriculture.

The district possesses number of holy tanks which are normally located adjacent to temple. The notable tanks areGudnapur tank near Banvasi, KotitirthaGokarna, Gunvante temple tank, Kavadi  and Hanumant tank Yellapurtaluk, Manjuguni tank, Bananti tank Mundgodare worth to mention.Attention is given to preserve and maintain these tanks by the temple authority as it supply water for holy dip and other religious function. At places these tanks are also used for fish culture, irrigating .

Compared to the earlier days, the seasonal variationof sourcesof surfacewater potential of the district shows considerable reduction in surface flow and storage.Most of the   perennial streams and the main river courses also dry up during early summer in the recent year. In the year 2016 the perennial river Aghanashini for the first time in the history of a century appeared to be discontinued its flow even at its lower stage at the beginning of peak summer.Most of the main tributaries of the perennial river courses are also becoming dry during early summer due to depletion of surface and subsurface water.

 

Photo No.–  19

See the silted tanks  due to Degradation of surrounding forest and mismanagement of its bunds in Mundgod  (1&2) and

Sirsi taluk  (3)

(1)

(2)

 

 

(3)

 

 

Photo No. 19

A  Polluted tank near Yellapurtown due to washing of vehicle and sewage water. Earlier it was a source of water for

Washing cloth and irrigation

Photo No. — 20

A poluted tank in the central  part of Honavar town due to Mixing of  sewage water

 

 

 

Impact on Ground Water Potential

In the year 2004 the net annual estimated ground water availability is 74,425 ham. But the net annual ground water availability is estimated at 70,765 ham. It is higher in the Malnadtaluk. Joida (10,835 ham), Sirsi (10578 ham),Yellapur (10,351 ham). But the MalnadtalukSiddapur possess less ground water potential (6,177 ham) due to hard massive Archaean base and the loss and degradation of extensive forest are the other causes for low ground water storage.

The coastal taluks has less ground water storage capacity due to steep slope and porous lateritic base. Except Ankolataluk (6,406 ham) other taluks possess comparatively less ground water storage with a least of 2,016 ham. in Karwar taluk which is mainly due tohard base rock overladen by porous  lateritic outer zone. But coastal and estuarine plane proper is rich in water potential due to loose sandy and sedimentary base.

The ground water estimation survey study carried out in the year 2011 by the CGWB, SWR, Bangalore and state ground water department Karnataka reports gives the clear picture of considerable decline of 52,905.16 ham.In a span of seven years at the rate of2, 551.43 ham.annually in ground water potential compared to the estimate of 2004. All the sub-regions and taluks (except coastal talukBhatkal which shows a remarkable increase of 2615.63 ham. (79.67 per cent) shows a remarkable decline in ground water potential.  A remarkable decline is identified in all the sub- regions and taluks of the district. A highest of 11,195.44 ham. (29.51 per cent) decline in ground water is availability is estimated in the Malnad region. The semi-Malnad region also estimates decrease in ground water of 2819.62 ham. 22.81 per cent. In the coastal region the estimated figure shows that there is reduction of 3844.78 ham. (18.78 per cent) in the year 2011 compared to the estimate of 2004.The coastal talukAnkola estimates the  highest  decline of 3162.60 ham.(49.37 per cent), the MalnadtalukJoida estimates 5028.87 ham. (46.41 per cent) and the semi-Malnadtaluk 1818.36 (28.78) decline in ground water availability.

 

Impact on ground water level

The pre-monsoon water level for the 10 years have declining trends in 82 per cent of the national hydrograph network stations piezometers and the post-monsoon water level for the 10 years have declining trends in 45 per cent of the piezometers drilled as national hygrograph network stations in the district. The pre-monsoon declining water level trends range between 0.005 to 0.80 m/year and the post monsoon declining water level trends in these piezometers range between 0.015 and 0.147 m/year.

The water level observed in the district shows seasonal and regional variation. A pre-monsoon water level observed report in the month of May 2006 shows that the water levels available for the 30 monitoring stations are having the pre-monsoon level It is found to be 2-5 mbgl. around Karwar town.

In Honavar town the depth of water level is between 5-10 mbgl.In the northern part of Joida, northern and north-western part of Siddapurtaluk, along the coast between KumtaAnkola , also on southern part of  Ankola the water level is between 2-5 mbgl. The water levels between 5 to 10 mbgl.andbetween 10-20 mbgl. are observed in northern parts of Joida and Halyaltaluks. On south eastern part of Yellapurtaluk, eastern parts of Mundgod, Sirsi and Siddapurtaluks, remaining parts of the district have water level between 5-10 mbgl.

The major part of the district has the post-monsoon water levels between 2-5 mbgl.in 2006. In the southern part of the district around major part of Sirsi and Siddapurtaluks and in some part of Ankola, Yellapur and Mundgodtaluks the depth of water levels are between 10 to 20 mbgl.

Impact on ground water level

The ground water levels monitored at national hydrograph stations reported the average and general condition of ground water behavior of the district.  It shows that out of 34 dug wells the general depth at water levels in the national hydrographstations recorded during may vary in the range of 1.91 to 29.88 mbgl. During

Table No. –24

Variation in Ground Water Potential

2004 – 2011 (in ham.)

SL No.

Taluk

and

Sub-regions

Net ground water availability in 2004 (ham.)

Net ground water availability in 2011 (ham,)

 

Variation (ham.)

I.

Coastal

20,464

 

16,619.22

-3,844.78

1

Karwar

2016

1072.10

-943.90

2

Ankola

6406

3243.40

-3162.60

3

Kumta

4155

2838.97

-1316.03

4

Honavar

4604

3566.12

-1037.88

5

Bhatkal

3283

5898.63

+2615.63

II.

Malnad

37,941

26,745.56

-11,195.44

 

6

Joida

10835

5814.13

-5020.87

7

Yellapur

10351

7260.66

-3090.34

8

Sirsi

10578

7762.48

-2815.52

9

Siddapur

6177

5908.29

-26871

III.

Sem-malnad

12,360

9,540.38

-2,819.62

 

10

Haliyal

6319

4500.64

-1818.36

11

Mundgod

6041

5039.74

-1001.26

Total

70,765

52,905.16

-17,859.84

 

Source : Central  ground water board Bangalore.

November the depth range was 0.36 to 16.85 mbgl. The pre-monsoon water level mapwas prepared shows water level between 5 to 10 mbgl. Water levels between 2-5 mbgl were observed around karwar town, in northern part of Joida northern andnorth western part of Sidddapurtaluk, along the coast between Kumta, Ankola and also on southern parts of Ankola. In northern parts of Joida and Haliyaltaluks the water levels between 10-20 mbgl. Whereas the eastern parts of Sirsi, Siddapur and Mundgod having water levels between 5-10 mbgl . During post monsoon season the depth of

Fig. No. — 11

 

dugwell in Uttara Kannada is generally between 2-5 mbgl. In major parts of Sirsi and Sidddapurtaluks and in small parts of Ankolataluk and in some areas of Ankola, Yellapur and Mundgodtaluks the depth of water level varies from 5 to 10 mgbl. The depth level is observed between 5-10 mbgl in and around Sirsi town and the eastern part it varies from 10 to 20 mbgl. Average seasonal water level fluctuation in the district is ranging between 0.14 – 6.07 m. The maximum ground water fluctuation in the district recorded is 0.19-13.03 m. in Honavar station and negative fluctuation of 0.19 m is recorded at Murdeshwar. At Bandelpiezometerhydrograph station recorded 6.07 m. of water fluctuation whereas the minimumwater level fluctuation of -0.14 m was recorded at Karwar.

Trends of Ground Water Level

Earlier the heavy rainfall received by the district ensured the ground water recharge regularly except at some local pockets of the semi-Malnad.But with the decrease in forest cover and its degradation has affected the process of recharge. In addition to this the increasing trend of   population, extension of horticultural land and improvement in socio-economic activities affects the ground water level.  Even though it is surprise to note that the pre-monsoon water levels for the last ten years have rising trends in 25 percent hydrograph network stations. But the declining pre-monsoon waterlevel trends range between 0.001 and 1.113 m/year. The post-monsoon water levels for last 10 years have rising trends in 81 per cent of the national hydrograph network stations in the district. During post-monsoon season the water level trends range between 0.025 to 0.166 m. / year.

Utilization of Ground Water

The ground water resources have not been exploited uniformly throughout the district. Exploration of ground water in the sem-Malnadtaluks are higher as compared to coastal and Malnad. The rich water potential received in the district is not sufficient for drinking, agriculture and other purposes in many parts of the district

during summer mainly because of lack of implementation of proper plans to utilize the rich underground water potential.

As per the estimate made by the central ground water board, Bangalore, there is considerable decline in available ground water draft.  Fulfilling the various present

Fig. No.  12

demand of water there is an excess water availability of 13,663.17 ham. of water in the district. Each sub-regions and taluks possess excess water after its various needs. A highest of 10,555.29 ham.of water is in excess in the Malnad region, the coastal region shows an excess of 2,564.02 ham. of water and the semi-Malnad is also shows anexcess of ground  water draft in Sept. 2015.

Fig. No. — 13

 

Table No. – 25

Uttara Kannada District

Net irrigated area from different source2010-11(area in ha.)

Sl.No.

Type of

Irrigation

Total Area

Irrigated

Percentage of Area irrigated

1.

Canal

00

  00

2.

Tanks

4,725

0.03

3.

Wells

7,720

0.05

4.

Bore well

1,935

0.01

5.

Swing basket

713

0.04

6.

Other sources

10,827

0.07

 

Total

25,920

0.20

 

 

 Local Ground Water Problems

 

The rich ground water potential available in the district is not free from local problems. There is both quantity and quality related ground water problems exist in the district. Except the semi-Malnadtaluks whole district receives heavy rainfall.

The highly undulating topography and highly permeable shallow aquifers allow the ground water recharged during monsoon to escape as base flow. As a result most part of the district suffers scarcity of water supply during summer. Therefore construction of gully plugs, contour bunds and contour tranches at higher reaches and percolation tanks, null bunds, check dams and vented dams at comparatively lower reaches along with subsurface dams will facilitate more recharge and less ground water to escape as base flow immediately after rainy season.

 

Table No.  – 26

 

Uttara Kannada District

Assessment of Existing Dynamic Ground Water Resource

2010-2011 (ham.)

 

 

 

Sl. No.

 

Taluk and Sub-regions

Net Annual Ground Water available (ham.)

Water draft for irrigation (ham.)

Water draft for Domestic   

    and industrial use (ham.)

Water draft for all other uses (ham.)

Balance water available (ham.)

I.

Coastal

16,619.22

5,695.95

1,331.64

7,027.61

3,260.72

 

1

Karwar

1072.10

493.02

115.49

608.52

144.93

2

Ankola

3243.40

972.18

157.33

1129.51

984.38

3

Kumta

2838.97

1296.47

224.72

1521.20

203.42

4

Honavar

3566.12

1469.52

191.24

1660.76

244.60

5

Bhatkal

5898.63

1464.76

642.86

2107.62

1683.39

II.

Malnad

25,935.56

7,013.45

1,084.19

8,097.64

10,718.30

 

6

Joida

5814.13

727.84

142.72

870.56

4037.01

7

Yellapur

7260.66

1285.80

185.48

1471.28

4318.10

8

Sirsi

7762.48

2376.99

373.66

2750.65

2261.18

9

Siddapur

5098.29

2622.82

382.33

3005.15

102.01

III.

Sem-malnad

9,540.38

4,159.87

336.34

4,495.30

4 ,289.49

10

Haliyal

4500.64

2831.25

154.68

2985.02

1470.31

11

Mundgod

5039.74

1328.62

181.66

1510.28

2819.18

 

Total

52,095.16

16,869.27

2,752.17

19,620.55

18,268.51

 

Source : Central Ground Water Board, Bangalore.

 

Table No.  – 27

 

Uttara Kannada District

Irrigated Land (Area in hect.) Under Different Sources

 

Sl. No.

Taluk and    Sub-regions

Tanks

Wells

Tube Wells

Lift Irrigation

Other

Total

I.

Coastal

695

5,704

127

680

6,120

13,326

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Karwar

Ankola

Kumta

Honavar

Bhatkal

   0

   0

102

493

100

   831

   650

1,720

1,678

  825

    0

   0

  15

112

   0

  25

  08

  45

602

   0

  224

  566

1,478

2,877

  975

1,080

1,224

4,759

3,860

1,900

II.

Malnad

681

4,154

1,004

0

4,374

10,213

6.

7.

8.

9.

Joida

Yellapur

Sirsi

Siddapur

      0

  471

  166

    44

    12

1509

 2185

  448

     0

  256

  722

    26

0

0

0

0

     962

   2043

    706

    663

    974

      4279

  3779

   1181

III.

Semi-malnad

5,666

  158

2745

0

    452

  9,021

10.

11.

Haliyal

Mundgod

3,845

   1,821

0

 158

1,084

1,661

0

0

    296

    156

  5225

  3796

District Total

7,042

10,016

3,876

680

10,946

32,560

           

Table No. —  28

 

Uttara Kannada District

Utilization and Development of Water Potential(2010-11)

 

Sl. No

Sub-region and Taluk Net Ground Water availability (ham) Existing Ground Water draft for irrigation

(ham)

Water draft     

        for   

  Domestic 

       and  

  Industrial

  use (ham)

Net Ground Water  for   Allother uses(ham) Balance  water available for other development      (Ham) Safe area  in percentage

I.

Coastal

16,619.22

5,695.95

1,331.64

7,027.61

2,564.02

100

1.

Karwar

1072.10

493.02

115.49

608.52

       144.93

100

2.

Ankola

3243.40

972.18

157.33

1129.51

       984.38

100

3.

Kumta

2838.97

1296.471

224.72

1521.20

       203.42

100

4.

Honavar

3566.12

 1469.52

     191.24

1660.76

       224.60

100

5.

Bhatkal

5898.63

1464.76

642.86

2107.62

     1,683.39

100

II.

Malnad

26,745.56

7,013.45

1,084.19

8,097.64

    10,555.29

100

6.

Sirsi

7762.48

2376.99

373.66

2750.65

      2,261.18

100

7.

Siddapur

5908.29

2622.82

382.33

3005.15

    102.01

100

8.

Yellapur

7260.66

1285.80

185.48

1471.28

     4,318.10

100

9.

Joida

5814.13

727.84

142.72

870.56

     4,037.01

100

III

Semi-malnad

9,540.38

4,159.87

336.34

4,495.30

      548.87

100

10.

Haliyal

4500.64

2831.25

154.68

2985.02

      1,470.31

100

11.

Mundgod

5039.74

1328.62

181.66

1510.28

     2,819.18

100

Total

52,905.16

16,869.27

2,752.17

19,620.55

13,668.18

100

 

 

Source: Central State Ground Water Board Bangalore.

Table No. – 29

 

Uttara Kannada District: Ground Water Resources 2004

 

 

 

 

Sl. No.

 

 

 

Sub-region and Taluk

Recharge from rainfall during monsoon season (ham.)

Recharge from other sources during monsoon season (ham.)

Recharge from rainfall during nonmonsoon season

(ham.)

Recharge from other sources during non-monsoon season (ham.)

Net annual  ground water available (ham.)

I.

Coastal

18,657

380

918

 1,568

 20,465

 

1.

Karwar

1,798

  46

115

   161

2,016

2.

Ankola

6 ,178

  54

320

  186

6,406

3.

Kumta

3 ,943

103

  30

  295

4,155

4.

Honavar

3, 635

115

299

  791

4,604

5.

Bhatkal

3 ,103

  62

154

 135

3,284

II

Malnad

37,333

906

357

1,310         37941

 

6.

Sirsi

9, 981

531

153

458

10,578

7.

Siddapur

5 ,770

214

  34

479

6,177

8.

Yellapur

10 ,446

  84

158

200

10,351

9.

Joida

11, 136

 77

  12

173

10,835

III

Semi-malnad

11,649

442

543

361

12,360

10.

Mundgod

5 ,544

364

249

192

6,041

11.

Haliyal

6 ,105

78

294

169

6,319

Total

67,639

1,728

1,818

3,239

 

70,765

 

 

Source: Central State Ground Water Board Bangalore.

                                                                Fig. No. 14

  

Table No. 30

 

Uttara Kannada District

Utilization and Development of Water Potential

 

 

Sl. No.

 

Sub-region and Taluk

 

Net Ground Water availability (ham)

 

Existing Ground Water draft for all uses

 

Provision  for Domestic andIndustrial

use up to

2025 (ham)

Net Ground Water availability for future irrigational Development

 

Stages  of  Development

in percentage

 

 

Safe area

 in

percentage

I.

Coastal

14,928

5,858

1,673

8,777

 

40.40

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Karwar

1,057

   514

  148

   518

       49.00

100

2.

Ankola

3,197

   885

  253

2272

       28.00

100

3.

Kumta

2,607

1,095

  272

1468

       42.00

100

4.

Honavar

2,352

   931

  223

1386

       40.00

100

5.

Bhatkal

5,715

2,433

 777

3133

       43.00

100

II

Malnad

25,222

9,214

1,295

15,880

 

37.25

 

100

6.

Sirsi

7100

3049

   439

    4011

       43.00

100

7.

Siddapur

5425

3497

   425

   1909

       64.00

100

8.

Yellapur

6786

1172

  260

   5574

       17.00

100

9.

Joida

5911

1496

   171

   4386

       25.00

100

III

Semi-malnad

 

10,910

3,279

 

395

 

7,565

 

46.50

 

100

10.

Haliyal

6425

1849

   181

    4546

       29.00

100

11.

Mundgod

4485

1430

   214

    3019

       64.00

100

Total

51,060

18,351

3,363

 32,222

41.38

100

 

 

Source: Central State Ground Water Board Bangalore.

Ground water quality

In general the ground water quality is good except the coastal region. The saline ingression in the coastal region spoiled the freshness of groundwater especially during summer. The decrease in the ground water level in the coastal aquifer especially adjacent to coastal proper is useless for either domestic use or for irrigation due to mixing of saline water.The area around Bhatkal in the coastal alluvium has high salinity content. In  the MalnadtalukJoida and near Dandeli the mining and industrial activities are producing toxic wastes and untreated effluents, which are causingimpact on water quality. In Malnadtaluks like Sirsi and Siddapur the fluoride contamination is reported. So it is necessary to demarcate the affected areas and to develop the shallow aquifer. The aquifer in the local vicinity of urban areas also reported pollution of ground water due to mixing of unsafe toilets and domestic water in the shallow ground water sources. In the coastal towns the ground water is rich and shallow.

As a result the domestic and sewage water finds it way easier to mix with the ground water. Therefore it is necessary to find out the affected area to take necessary step to avoid contamination of underground aquifer.

 

Ground water management

The undulated terrain condition of the district put hurdle in permeable formation at the surface. Most of the rain water escapes either as surface flow or base flow in many parts of the district. After March there is acute shortage of water even for drinking so the water sources should be supported by suitable artificial recharge structures or ground water conservation structures in the vicinity to augment the present water supply. Still plenty of scope is there for further development of dug wells for water requirement for varied needs. But in recent years bore wells are becoming more

Table No. 31

 

Uttara Kannada District

Ground Water Development 2004-2029

Sl. No.

Sub-region

and

Taluk

Allocation for domestic and

industrial

use for

25-years (ham.)

Net Ground Water available for future irrigation development (ham.)

Average crop water required per year (ham.)

Balance ground water irrigation potential available (ham.)

Percentage of safe area

I.

Coastal

1,423

14,406

0.79

17,899.74

 

100

 

1.

Karwar

261

1,199

0.82

1,450.44

100

2.

Ankola

260

5,497

0.82

6,650.07

100

3.

Kumta

269

2,629

0.82

3,180.83

100

4.

Honavar

319

2,874

0.81

3,495.02

100

5.

Bhatkal

314

2,207

0.70

3,123.38

100

II

Malnad

1,362

28,433

0.81

 34,564.11

      100

6.

Sirsi

496

6,774

0.81

   8,283.54

100

7.

Siddapur

425

3,040

0.80

   3,754.20

100

8.

Yellapur

251

9,052

0.82

10,951.39

100

9.

Joida

190

9,567

0.82

11,574.98

100

III

Semi-malnad

342

 

9,671

0.82

11,697.93

100

10.

Mundgod

212

4,617

0.82

5,583.69

100

11.

Haliyal

130

5,054

0.82

6,114.24

100

Total

3,127

52,210

0.81

64,161.78

100

 

 

popular.  For irrigation dug well are more effective. The isolated patches of crop land distribution and field size is also more suitable to dug wells

At present the availability of ground water for variousneeds is very safe. The projected figures of ground water from 2004 to 2029 shows that the ground water drafts of the district is safe to supply water for the development of irrigation in the district up to 2029 at the present rate of   consumption. There is wide scope to extend irrigation in future to increase agricultural produce in the district.

Findings:

Uttara Kannada district, a part of one of the “Hot Spots” of the world, “A Land of Natural Museum” is one of the forest districts of Karnataka state.

The main emphasis of this minor research project is to find out the causes for the depletion of water potential of the district and to suggest suitable measures to bring back its natural entity

Primary source of water in the district is s-w monsoon. The retreating monsoon has very less support, which is little active in the upper Ghat region. It is estimated that the district receives an average of 28.221 cubic km. of water from rainfall every year. But it is unbelievable that the district experience acute scarcity of water duringsummer. The topographical condition is not suitable to hold water for a long. The steep western slope drains voluminous water received by heavy rainfall during s-w monsoon drains to the Arabian seawithin a short spell of time and creates severe damage to man, property and nature.

The Western Ghat acts as an overhead tank. It stores, purifies and gradually and regularly releasing water to the low lying regions as down streams. Earlier the natural entity of the district forest was undisturbed.With the increase in population and their growing needs demand more water. As a result the surface and sub-surface water potential of the district is continuously depleting in the recent past.

The forest cover of the district performs several critical ecological functions that support agroforestry, agriculture and other forest-based livelihoods in the area.

Increasing cultivation of horticultural crops, extensive use of green manure for cultivation of horticultural crops, seasonal fencing of crop land, forest encroachment, high dependency on fire wood, mining activities and inroad in to the forest are the main affecting factors on forest.

The wide spreading of forest weed“Eupatorium Odoratum” is growing vigorously and prevents regeneration of undergrowth and dries immediately during summer.  It is more sensitive to fire and destroys undergrowth which affects regeneration of the forest.

A little increase in population and their socio-economic needs are the main causes of forest loss and degradation. It has serious impact on quality and quantity of surface and sub-surface sources of water.

The barren and degraded surface not supports to hold water for infiltration process. The exposed barren surface to bright sunshine has its impact on ground waterpotential.The increased runoff and silting in the water bodies also decreases the storage capacity of water and become dry. Horticultural area is enhanced by extension and encroachment of adjacent forest land which also contributes towards the severe degradation of forest.It has severe impact on surface and sub-surface water sources. The barren surface is easily exposed to soil erosion which in turn leads severe silting in the river beds and creates spreading of water in the lower course and flood in the estuarine plainduring early summer.

The major part of the district consists of porous lateritic base which has high recharging capacity. It helps to recharge the underground immediately during s-w monsoon. But its high porosity does not hold and stores ground water for a long. As a result it depletes level of water table immediately after south-west monsoon.

The western margin is characterized by loose coastal alluvial, red loam, red sandy loam; sandy saline soils are the other types of soil of the district. It is a rich zone of underground water source at a higher depth especially on estuarine and coastal plain which supply ensured water resource throughout the year.

Even at this depleted condition, the balanced water stored in the underground and in surface sources is more than enough to support various needs of the people at present. The topographical condition, forest cover, the limited land isolated pattern of crop land and settlement type can’t permit to implement a major irrigational project.

Major part of the district is forest area (79.31 per cent) and a very limited land is available for socio-economic activity. Agriculture is the main occupation, which is seasonal. Kharif is the main cropping season. Land extended to Rabi crop is very limited.  Horticultural practice is more profitable. It provides regular employment to limited labors. Fishing is confined to sea coast and estuaries.Large scale fishing is seasonal. Only few fishermen are supported by local fishing regularly.

Large and medium scale industries rarely exist. Small scale industries are generally basic industries which provides local immediate needs of the people, which employ limited number of people. Under the circumstances people find it difficult for their livelihood.

The installed hydel project has created serious havoc to district environment and eco-system on one side but the storage of voluminous water supports regular flow of water in the lower courses and helps to enrich ground water sourcesin the surrounding areas.

 Suggestions :                

The ultimate aim is to maintain, manage and conserve water potential for better utilization. Therefore a constructive and a rational thinking with perfect insight are necessary to suggest a suitable measure to conserve and utilize water potential of the environmentally sensitive district Uttara Kannada.

Green economy is the most suitable measures to conserve water potential in the district. The agro-forestry will help in encouraging the rural human resource towards direct and indirect employment generation and also help to conserve and regenerate forest resource of the district.

Water Conservation Techniques

 Afforestation  

Afforestation is the best water conservation technique in the district.  It is a very well-known fact that, there is a close relationship between dense evergreen forests with local species and water conservation. More the forest covers more will be thestorage of water.  The dense forest cover acts as a water filter. Fresh water will not be available without healthy forest cover. It prevents runoff and surface erosion and thereby increases recharge of ground and surface storage of water in the local tanks, stream and river beds which ensure regular flow of water.   Therefore the top priority should be given to generate immediate forest cover to stop depletion of surface and sub-surface water for better conservation and utilization.

The forest department is working hard to develop and conserve forest. But the conservation consciousness should be promoted by creating sense of belongingness through education, motivation and involvement of general public, intellectuals and social organization in preventing search of sustainable assured source of income and migration of youth to the urban centers.

It is necessary to root out the weed Eupatorium  Odoratum from forest which help for the regeneration of native species. Awareness should be created among people about the effect of weed on forest growth and human life. Forest department should chalk out a plan to eradicate it from forest and other areas by motivating local people and social organization to conserve forest and pasture.

Measures should be taken by the forest department in association with public participation to eradicate the spreading of weed Eupatorium Odoratum in dense jungleand in other areas at grass root level. It helps in regeneration of immediate dense undergrowth which helps to protect ground water storage.

Measures to control, 0 Forest Loss and Degradation

The sensitive district possesses rare species of fauna and flora,several endemic plants,medicinal plants and animal species, which should be conserved with intense care to increase its density with special protection measures by the forest department which in turn helps the conservation of wild life and ecological balance.Better motivation should be given to protect and intensify forest cover in the degraded Soppinabetta lands by the forest department with necessary support to farmers.Agro-forestry may be effectively developed in these areas.The forest department should also pass immediate necessary orders towards the development of Soppinabetta lands which shouldfacilitatethe areca garden owners for better percentage of share of profit with favorable regulations. This extension of immediate and intensive afforestation will protect the surface cover, prevent soil erosion and increase water potential.

Seasonal fencing of cropland is a major threat to forest cover. It clears voluminous forest undergrowth, bamboo and thorny bushes every year from the surrounding forest. It is one of the major threats to regeneration of forest. Many farmers deserted their fields due to shortage of fencing wood and thorny bushes. The forest department

should implement permanent fencing programs with attractive incentive to farmer. It

helps to regenerate forest and its density and farmers will also show the interest of cultivation due to ensured crop protection.

The construction of compound wall with massive lateritic boulder is the best remedy to solve fencing problem in the coastal and Malnad region where it is cheaper and abundantly available. It prevents entry of stray cattle and terrestrial wild animals into the field. The maintenance of power fence is costlier to a poor farmer. The other measures like deep trench around field bound and barbed wire fence have not successfully worked out in the district. A special scheme should be implemented by the forest department to protect house compound with permanent remedial measures by providing subsidy schemes for the construction of permanent compound wall which will stop dependency on forest material every year. It is not only encourages farmer to go for cropping. The house owner will also take interest of growing possible crops within the available land in his compound.

Water Conservation measures

Considering the prevailing scenario of the surface and groundwater resources, the following recommendations are made for the optimum drawl with sustainable development of water resources in the area.

There is more ground water storage than the surface water, which is available everywhere in the district.  It is sustainable and reliable source of water supply. Hence,surface runoff need to be conserved to increase ground water. It is necessary to construct check dams and sub-surface dykes at appropriate places across the streams and tributaries in the water table depleting areas. Sinking of the filter points and collector wells with the maximum depth of 4-6 m in the alluvial stretches of river banks and in coastal alluviums would be ideal ground water abstraction structures.

A comprehensive programme should be formulated to harvest the rain water. Hill tops region should give priority with bunds and trenches to recharge and for regular flow of water in the lower region during summer.Check dams, surface tanks, subsurface dykes are to be made to enhanceand recharge sub-surface flows and augment the groundwater resources.

The ground water worthy areas such as topographic lows, valley portions low fluctuations zones should be identified and developed for better utilization.

Maintaining of tanks is utmost importance.Proper bunds should be built to avoid entry of silt and other waste material into the tanks. Steps should be taken to remove silts from tanks. Better storage in the tank will enhance naturalrecharge without any hindrance. Maintenance of this shallow aquifer can help in supplying water for wild animals, cattle, local irrigation andeven for drinking.

 Utilization of water Resources

Even though the district receives good rainfall, it is facing water scarcity in some pockets during peak summer. It can be avoided by formulating comprehensiveprogramme of harvesting rain water through dug wells, which penetrate partially through the weathered, fractured zones of the aquifers, may be deepened further for the better productivity

Private sector participation should be encouraged invarious aspects of management of water resources. To create awareness among people to improve agricultural productivity and farm income by utilizing water resources in a better way.

The rich water potential of the district has the capacity to irrigate entire cropland of the district. It is also recommended to bring an estimated 64,161 ha. of land to irrigate through balance of ground water. The topographical condition and size of the land holding is the main hurdle in implementation of major irrigational project. Even medium irrigational projects are also not possible except in the elongated strip of the coastal region. The small and micro irrigational projects are the best remedy to solve the problems of the local farmers.

The wrong practice of over utilization and improper utilization  of water especially for horticultural crops are generally seen in the adequate water regions of the district. It is unnecessarily waste voluminous water and effect on crop yield. Therefore a water budgeting training should be given for the cultivation of different crops.

 

A number of mini and micro irrigational scheme have to be implemented. These schemes can store limited water which is enough to supply water to the local isolated patches of crop land and has very less effect on surrounding forest and environment.

The heterogeneous condition in lithology, soil, topography and forest cover shows variation in ground water level depletion. Insuch area to match with the depleting water table, the dug well should be deepened which penetrates through the weathered, fractured zones of aquifers and supply better yield.

The farming community in the valley and low lying regions should be encouraged with financial assistance and necessary technical guidance to sink appropriate abstraction structures, to install pump sets, to practice modern irrigation methods thereby to strengthen their economy.

As a whole the entire district comes under safe category. The soil conservation measures to prevent the soil erosions during rainy season still have wide scope for further ground water development.  Possible dug wells only should be recommended because bore well culture consumes more water for growing crops and high power consumption to lift water from deep down. There is possibility of failure of bore well due to hard rock terrain in most part of the district.

Finally it is concluded that the success of conservation of water resources of the district is very much depended on conservation of forest. Therefore top priority should be given to conserve forest. The effort of the forest department alone will not be successful unless local people extend co-operation with awareness and sense of blondness.

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